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[原创] Two Republics in China
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文章时间: 2019-9-20 周五, 下午8:53    标题: 引用回复

Whampoa military academy

The Whampoa Military Academy was founded on the 16th of June, 1924, on the instruction of Sun Yat-sen, to train officers for the Revolutionary Army. It was situated on Changzhou Island in the Whampoa District of Canton. Afterwards, branches were founded in Wuhan, Changsha, Chaoshan, and Nanning cities. In preparation for the establishment of this academy, Sun had sent Chiang Kai-shek to the Soviet Union in September of 1923 to learn from their experience. So the academy was modeled after those in the Soviet Union. And Chiang Kai-shek was appointed President of the academy. Quite a few Communist Party (CPC) members were appointed leaders of departments, such as Ye Jianying (1897–1986), deputy director of the training department, and Zhou Enlai (1898–1976), deputy director of the political department.
In May of 1924, the academy began to take in students. Out of 1200 applicants, 350 students were enrolled and 120 were accepted as alternate students for the first term. In 1927, the academy was relocated in Nanking and renamed the Central Army Officer Academy. Later, in 1949, it moved to Taiwan, for reasons that will become apparent later. From 1924 to 1949, there were 23 terms, and including the terms held in Taiwan, the academy was functioning for 78 terms. The academy graduated 41,386 students, including many famous generals.
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文章时间: 2019-9-22 周日, 下午8:53    标题: 引用回复

The Break-Up of the National Party and the Communist Party
After the death of Sun Yat-sen, Chiang Kai-shek took the full command of the Revolutionary Army. Unlike Sun Yat-sen, Chiang Kai-shek had no confidence in the CPC, especially after their fourth conference.
That fourth conference of the Communist Party was held from the 11th to the 22nd of January, 1925, with 20 representatives gathered in Shanghai. Chen Duxiu, Zhang Guotao, Zhou Enlai, and Xiang Ying, and many others attended. Chen was the chairman. During the conference, Chen was elected the general secretary of the central bureau, consisting of five persons. They decided that the Communist Party had to take charge of the revolution, and that laid the ground for major disruptions.
On the 20th of March, 1926, the warship Yat-sen planned an artillery attack on the Whanpoa Military Academy to drive away Chiang Kai-shek. Chiang gave orders to arrest the captain, Li Zhilong, a member of the Communist Party. Then Chiang ordered Zhou Enlai and all their party members to get out of the academy. The students now faced a problem as to which party they would follow. One student quit the National Party and 39 students quit the Communist Party. The others remained in the academy.
Meanwhile within the National Party, Wang Jingwei (1883–1944, who later treacherously went over to the Japanese during the Sino–Japanese War) wanted to take over the leadership of the National Party. He organized another government in Wuhan City, close to Wuchang City, the cradle of the 1911 revolution, and held the third conference of the National Party without the attendance of Chiang. This was called Wuhan government.
At that time Chiang only had command of the Revolution Army and held no position in the government. The Wuhan government wanted Chiang to continue to the north to wipe out the warlords there. But Chiang planned to go east to occupy the eastern provinces first, including Shanghai, because those eastern provinces were also under the control of warlords.
During those years, the land problem was serious. Peasants wanted to have their own land so that they would not be exploited by landowners. When peasants worked land owned by those in the ownership class, they had to give part of the harvest to the landowners, as in any feudal system. As the imperial system had been demolished, they wanted land reforms too. Under instigation by the Communist Party, they began to demand this more and more aggressively.
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文章时间: 2019-9-23 周一, 下午8:56    标题: 引用回复

Stalin, head of the Soviet Union, asked the Communist Party of China in October of 1926 to curb the action of peasants, to reduce the violence. In March of 1927, the Communist Party established legal penalties for landowners. Any landowners who resisted the revolution would be put to death.
On the 2nd of April, 1927, the Central Committee of the National Party held a meeting in Wuhan, inviting two members of the Communist Party, one of whom was Mao Zedong. They were considering a bill about the land problem. The government would confiscate the land of “reactionaries” (those who preferred the old ways as opposed to the revolution) such as property owners, officials who had a stake in the old system, and warlords. The definition of reactionary landowners was to be based on the amount of land they owned, measured by the mu (about 0.165 acres). Anyone who had more than 30 mus, about 5 acres, was dubbed a reactionary. All landowners would be classified into rich peasants, small and middle landowners, and large landowners, according to the amount of terrain they possessed. This standard was still used in the land reform when the Communist Party later established their republic.
On the 22nd of April, when this bill was under discussion, the National Party and the CPC had different opinions. That was one of the reasons for their falling out, because many members of the National Party came from families who owned land. Then on the 26th of April, Chen Duxiu and Zhang Guotao were invited to attend the meeting, and also Borodin, the Russian counselor. On the 6th of May, the bill was at last passed. Only the large landowners would see their land confiscated. The land belonging to small landowners and families of revolutionary officials would remain the same. However, once the peasants had been instigated, it was hard to check their zeal to take possession of the land.
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文章时间: 2019-9-25 周三, 下午9:15    标题: 引用回复

Victory of the Revolutionary Army and the final break between the two parties

In July of 1926, the National Party decided that the Revolutionary Army should head north to annihilate the warlords there. As Chiang was the commander-in-chief, he led the army north, fighting all the way along the route. The plan was for the Revolutionary Army to attack Wu Peifu first, and then Sun Chuanfang, occupying Jiangxi, Fujian, Anhui, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang, five provinces. Finally the Revolutionary Army would attack Zhang Zuolin in Peking.
In August of 1926, the Revolutionary Army assaulted the main force of Wu Peifu and wiped it out; they took over Wuchang city on the 10th of September. In November, the Revolutionary Army annihilated the main force of Sun Chuanfang, another warlord, and occupied Jiujiang and Nanchang cities. At the same time, Feng Yuxiang gained control of the northwestern region of China. A warlord, Yan Xishan (1883–1960), ruled Shanxi province. Observing the rapid advance of the Revolutionary Army, both Feng and Yan joined it. Now only the warlord Zhang from the northeastern provinces remained in Peking.
In October, the Communist Party organized workers in Shanghai to rise to arms against the warlord government 675 miles north in Peking, but they failed. In November, the Revolutionary Army took control of the area of the Yangtze River. So the national Government decided to establish its capital in Wuhan City, but Chiang wanted the capital in Nanchang, which was then under his control. Anyway, on the 9th of December, the national Government moved to Wuhan City.
On the 21st of February, 1927, the Central Committee of the National Party held a meeting of the 80 members, one third belonged to the Communist Party and one third were communist-leaning. Among the leaders of all the departments of the National Party, half of them were members of the Communist Party. This meant that the CPC controlled the national Party. And the Communist Party was organizing its own army.
Chiang Kai-shek decided he had to found another government. He had many supporters, like the brothers Chen Guofu (1892–1951) and Chen Lifu (1900–2001) and others in his army. All were young men.
On the 19th of February, General Bai Chongxi (1893–1966) took over Hangzhou city as he marched east with his detachment of the Revolutionary Army. On the 22nd, the Communist Party fomented a second riot in Shanghai but failed once more. On the 10th of March, the Central Committee of the National Party had another meeting to openly declare their break with Chiang, and he cut off all relations with the Communist Party.
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文章时间: 2019-9-27 周五, 下午8:51    标题: 引用回复

Then Wang Jingwei came back from France, where he attended classes in the University of Lyon and reorganized the National Party by expelling the Russian counselor and members of the Communist Party. He also suggested that the national government and the headquarters of the National Party be moved to Nanking.
On the 22nd of March, the east detachment of the Revolutionary Army under Bai Chongxi entered Shanghai. On the 24th, the middle detachment occupied Nanking. A few members of the Communist Party instigated the soldiers of the Revolutionary Army to rob and kill foreigners in order to incite foreign governments to take action against the national government. But the consuls of England, the United States and Japan had evidence that the Communist Party was responsible for the trouble.
On the fifth of April, the Central Committee of the National Party divided the Revolutionary Army into two military blocs. Chiang was re-appointed the commander-in-chief of the first military bloc and Feng Yuxiang was the commander-in-chief of the second. On the same day, Chiang contacted the heads of certain mafias in Shanghai and asked them to organize a Shanghai business guild to oppose the Shanghai workers’ general union, an armed group which was controlled by the Communist Party.
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文章时间: 2019-9-29 周日, 下午8:49    标题: 引用回复

Meantime, Borodin secretly urged General Guo Songling under the warlord government to fight Zhang Zuolin, who had secret contacts with Chiang. On the 6th of April, Zhang suddenly attacked the embassy of the Soviet Union in Peking to arrest 58 members of the Communist Party hiding there, including Li Dazhao, one of the main founders of the Communist Party. They found secret documents which proved that the Soviet Union instructed the Communist Party to overthrow the Chinese government. On the 12th of April, Chiang sent the national 26th army to the Shanghai workers’ general union to order them to surrender their weapons. But they refused, and many people were killed in the conflict, which became known as the 4/12 event. Then Chiang ordered all the organizations controlled by the Communist Party to disband.
On the 17th of April, Chiang and other members of the Central Committee of the National Party met in Nanking to issue warrant for the arrest of 197 leading members of the Communist Party, including Borodin, Chen Duxiu, Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, Liu Shaoqi (1898–1969), Zhang Guotao, Deng Yingchao (1904–1992, wife of Zhou Enlai), and others. On the 28th, Li Dazhao and others were hanged in Peking, accused of plotting to overthrow the government.
On the 20th of April, the Communist Party issued a statement saying that Chiang was the open foe of the revolutionary people and called upon the people to overthrow him. On the 22nd day, Wang Jingwei and other members of the National Party who supported the Communist Party, together with Mao Zedong and some Communist Party members, openly blamed Chiang for the disruption. Chiang founded the national government in Nanking in opposition to the government in Wuhan City.
On the fifth of June when Indian revolutionary M.N. Roy, a representative of the Communist International, asked Wang Jingwei to allow the Communist Party to control the Wuhan government, Wang began to disband the Communist Party. Therefore, on the 1st of August, the Communist Party called for riots in Nanchang. That marked the final rupture between the National Party and the Communist Party.
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文章时间: 2019-9-30 周一, 下午9:17    标题: 引用回复

Chapter 2. The First Civil War Between The National Party and the Communist Party

Communist Party Riots

The Riot in Nanchang City

Wang Jingwei learned that the Soviet Union was planning to help the Communist Party of China to take over power from Wuhan government in July 1927. He expelled all the members of the Communist Party that were in the National Party and the Wuhan government. This led the Central Committee of the Communist Party in Jiujiang City (Jiangxi province) to forment a riot in Nanchang City, where they controlled some of the army. On the 26th of July, Zhou Enlai was sent to organize the riot. Several hours after Zhou left, they got a telegram from the Communist International, instructing them not to start it if there was no chance of winning. So Zhang Guotao was sent after Zhou. When Zhang reached Nanchang, all the preparations were already in place, and besides, most of the representatives refused to take these orders. The 11th army and the 20th army under the command of He Long (1896–1969) had already come to Nanchang from Jiujiang City, and were welcomed by Zhu De (1886–1976), commander of the 9th army and head of the city police.
At two o’clock in the morning of August 1, 1927, the rebels began to attack the National Revolutionary Army guarding the city. After fighting for four hours, they occupied the city. But the national government gathered more troops to surround Nanchang. The rebellious army had to beat a retreat from the city and went south. On the way, Zhou Enlai, He Long and other leaders deserted their troops and escaped to Hong Kong and Shanghai. Only Zhu De led the rest of the army to Guangdong province. They had to adopt the stratagems of guerrilla warfare. In January of 1928, Zhu De started another riot and led his army to Mt. JingGang in Jiangxi province, where he met Mao Zedong. Their troops formed the Red 4th Army.
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文章时间: 2019-10-02 周三, 下午9:03    标题: 引用回复

Mao Zedong resorts to rebellion

As Wang Jingwei expelled the members of the Communist Party from the National Party and the Wuhan government, Mao Zedong went to Changsha City on the 12th of August to arm peasants and mine workers in that area in preparation for a riot. He had an army of 8,000 soldiers. On the 9th of September, they started their rebellion and set out to attack Changsha City. There were many Communist Party members in the city, scheming to let the attackers in by making a sudden assault on the national government army guarding the city. But their plan was leaked by insiders and became known to the national government. The traitors had to escape or they would be arrested and killed. Mao had to change his plan of attack and marched towards Mt JingGang, where his forces united with Zhu De’s army.
On the 4th of June in 1928, Zhang was forced to withdraw from Peking to go back to his original location. As he could not always accomplish what Japan demanded, Japan was not satisfied with him. On the fifth day, when Zhang was on board a train and passed through the railway station at Huanggutun, his train was exploded with gunpowder set there by the Japanese. He was severely injured and died when he reached Shenyang City. His son Zhang Xueliang (1901–2001) succeeded him in his position.
He declared he was joining the Revolutionary Army on the 29th of December, 1928. There were no more warlords, and China was thus united.
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文章时间: 2019-10-04 周五, 下午8:48    标题: 引用回复

Chiang Kai-Shek Besieges The Red Army Five Times

The first siege

Since Chiang Kai-shek had cleared all the warlords from China, he began to deal with the Communist Party and the Red Army in October of 1930. Chiang sent his army, 300,000 strong, against the Red Army (the Chinese Workers and Peasants Red Army), 40,000 soldiers. If Chiang could surround the Red Army, he could easily wipe it out. But Mao’s strategy was wiser than Chiang’s. On November 1, Mao faked some maneuvers so that the Chinese Red Army seemed to be advancing in different directions, leading Chiang’s commander-in-chief to think that the Red Army would escape. Therefore, the National Army split up in order to chase down the enemies in different directions. Then the Red Army gathered together again and annihilated a small national division of 9,000 soldiers that had been cut off from the main force on December 30, 1930. And the other divisions had to fall back. Thus ended the first siege.
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文章时间: 2019-10-06 周日, 下午8:46    标题: 引用回复

The second siege

On the 1st of April, 1931, the second siege began. Considering the failure of the first siege due to the failed tactic of attempting to surround the Red Army, Chiang Kai-shek decided instead to move slowly with all the troops keeping close. On the 13th of May, the 28th division of the fifth army of the national forces left Futian and marched eastward. On the fifth day, Zhu De and Mao directed their 3rd military bloc and the 35th Red Army to form a left wing, and the 3rd Red Army to head up the middle, while the 4th Red Army and 12th Red Army made up the right wing, to surround the fifth national army. The commander of this army committed the same mistake. He should not have marched separately from others. Zhu De and Mao ordered their 7th Red division and 35th Red division to block the advance of the reinforcements from the 19th national army. As a result, on the 16th day, the 28th division of the national army was annihilated by the overwhelming number of enemy forces. On the 19th day, the 12th Red army attacked the 54th national division, which escaped. The 19th national army had no information about what was happening to the other armies and had to retreat. Thus ended the second siege.
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文章时间: 2019-10-07 周一, 下午8:42    标题: 引用回复

The third siege

On the 21st of June, 1931, after the two failed sieges, Chiang Kai-shek formed two military blocs 300,000 strong for the third siege. On the July 10, the Communist Party also made all possible preparations for battle. The National Army had started to march on July 1, but could not ascertain the location of the Red Army. Towards the end of the month, the main forces of the Red Army were found taking a back route to a place called XingGuo. From the enemy’s location, Chiang Kai-shek judged that the Red Army planned to go west to cross the Gan River. He wanted to wipe it out on the east bank of the river. Mao and Zhu’s original plan was to ignore the main forces of the National Army, and use the Red Army to break through the encirclement at Futian to assail the detachment remaining in the rear; but this plan was detected. The 11th and the 14th divisions of the National Army marched faster to occupy Futian to block the Red Army’s escape route. This time, it looked good for Chiang. But Mao changed to a bold plan. He ordered the 35th Red Army to disguise itself as the main force, and to cross the Gan River to distract the National Army. On the 4th of August, his main forces stole through the gap between the two military blocs of the National Army before they closed like a vise. (That gap is said to have been 40 li wide. The li, or “Chinese mile,” creates some difficulties as this traditional unit of distance was only recently standardized. It now means half a kilometer or about a third of a mile.) This strategy was successful and the Red Army arrived at a safe place and annihilated a brigade of the National Army there on August 7. Then the Red Army moved to Huangpo and wiped out four national regiments on the 11th.
Then Chiang Kai-shek found out that what he was pursuing was not the main force of the Red Army. When the national troops turned back to march north, the fatigued army was like an arrow at the end of its flight. On the 18th of September, the 9/18 event happened, so Chiang had to go back to Nanking to take charge of the situation. Thus ended the third siege.
The strategies Mao used in the previous three battles would be seen repeated and repeated. Chiang was defeated three times by the same stratagem. Chiang Kai-shek never learned from his failures and made little improvement. It could be said that he deserved to be driven away from the mainland to Taiwan, after all.
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文章时间: 2019-10-09 周三, 下午9:07    标题: 引用回复

The establishment of the red government in Ruijin

After a few victories, the Communist Party founded their Red government in Ruijin City of Jiangxi province. It was located in a basin with mountains on three sides. Nanchang City, the capital of the province, under the national government, was 300 li (just over 90 miles) away.
On the 7th of November, 1931, they celebrated the founding of the Red government. Mao was the Chairman of the government and Zhu De was the Commander of the army. In the area of the Red government, almost everyone was in an organization of some sort. The organization for six-year-olds and up was called the “children’s league.” That of the youngsters of fifteen-year-old and up was called young pioneers. Young adults joined the “Red Guard Army.” They printed their own paper money and used terrorist methods to control people. Even their own comrades were killed. Li Wenlin, also a leader in the party, was murdered. Peasants in that area did not have to give part of their harvest to any landowners, but they did have to support the Red government in order to support the Red Army.
No one could leave the area without a pass. There were sentinels everywhere, 24 hours a day. Whoever was caught leaving secretly would be executed. War time or not, under such drastic terrorism even the intimate subordinate Yang Yuebin deserted Mao and went to the national government to give away Mao’s location. Airplanes were sent to bombard the place and Mao had to move.
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文章时间: 2019-10-11 周五, 下午8:45    标题: 引用回复

The fourth siege

After the 9/18 and 12/8 events (detailed in Chapter 3) were over, with the signing of the Songhu armistice agreement in May of 1932, Chiang Kai-shek planned for the fourth siege. This time he attacked the district of Hubei, Hunan and Anhui provinces where the Red Army was weak and was soon vanquished. Then in February of 1933, Chiang concentrated his forces to push forwards to where the main forces of the Red Army camped. The leadership of the Red Army had been changed at the meeting in Ningdu Town in October of 1932. Mao Zedong was dismissed from the commanding position. The leader was Bogu, who came from Shanghai on the 7th of January, 1933, but the actual commanders of the Red Army were Zhu De, Zhou Enlai and Peng Dehuai (1898–1974).
They used the same ruse Mao had used. They ordered the 11th Red army to disguise themselves as the main forces to attract and lead off the middle, second and third columns of the National Army to Lichuan area, while their actual main forces rested at Guangchang. Then they laid ambushes by the 1st Red military bloc and 3rd Red military bloc and 21st Red army to attack the 52nd national army, while the 5th Red military bloc and 22nd Red army would attack the 59th national army. On March 1, both national armies were annihilated and the commanders were captured. So the National Army was forced to withdraw. Thus ended the fourth siege.
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文章时间: 2019-10-13 周日, 下午8:48    标题: 引用回复

The fifth siege

In May of 1933, Chiang Kai-shek set up his headquarters in Nanchang City and assumed the responsibility of commander-in-chief himself for the fifth siege of the Red Army. Since the last siege, the Red Army had grown considerably. Chiang Kai-shek therefore gathered an army a million strong, including the 300,000 soldiers of Chen Jitang in Guangdong province. Chen had been a warlord there, and then had subordinated himself to the national government when he saw all the other warlords had been wiped out.
The siege began on September 25, 1933, and ended on October 14, 1934, lasting for 385 days. Chiang Kai-shek used artillery and airplanes. On the 25th day, the National Army attacked Lichuan Town. After three days, they took the town. On the 9th of October, the 24th Red division went to attack Xiaoshi, but the National Army had a strong defense there with fortresses and trenches. For several days, the Red Army could not take the town, and suffered heavy casualties. That was the first stage.
In November, there was a coup d’état in Fujian province against Chiang Kai-shek. The leaders of this coup founded another government, but they had little support. Even the Communist Party declared this new government unlawful. So the coup ended in failure.
On the 11th of December, the National Army in town changed from defense to counterattack. The Red Army fought back under the command of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, regardless of the fact that the National Army was far better equipped. The Red Army was conquered and retreated. That was the second stage.
On April 10, 1934, Chiang Kai-shek sent 11 divisions divided into two columns marching towards Guangchang. The Communist Party used 9 divisions to prevent the National Army from attacking the town. Battles broke out in many other places, too. The Red Army lost in those places and had to withdraw to Guangchang. On the 27th of April, the National Army attacked the town and occupied it in the evening. The Red Army had to escape, leaving 5,500 casualties. That was the third stage.
In June of 1934, the Communist Party made up its mind to resist the National Army assault to the last man. Even so, on August 5, nine divisions of the National Army, with air support, defeated the Red Army. The remnants of the Red Army had to escape and began the famous Long March. That was the final stage of the fifth siege.
The Red Army failed because the commanders changed from the right strategy to a wrong one. During this period Mao Zedong was not in the Red Army. He had been sent somewhere else. The failure drove home the obvious point that strategy is more important than many other factors; strategy can be decisive; and especially in politics and war, strategy is everything.
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文章时间: 2019-10-14 周一, 下午8:12    标题: 引用回复

The Famous Long March

The central Red Army, 86,000 in all, began marching on the 21st of October, 1934. This wound up being a 2,500-li march, that is, some 775 miles. They were headed to the western Hunan province where the 2nd and 6th Red military blocs encamped. Chiang Kai-shek deduced what route they were likely to take and laid four blockade lines to stop them. Zhou Enlai and Zhu De went to have a talk with Chen Jitang, a former warlord, and bribed him to let them go through his blockade line. So there was no fighting at the first three lines, as the Red Army never went there. However, they had to fight the National Army when they attempted to break through the fourth line. They made a heavy sacrifice after the rest of the Red Army fought through the fourth lines. Only 30,000 were left out of the 86,000.
The Long March could be divided in four stages. Firstly, the escaped Red Army wanted to go to a place at the border of Sichuan, Hunan and Guizhou provinces, where the geographic features were easy to defend and hard to attack. In these areas there were still some local small warlords that they could mingle amongst them for safety and the central national government would not easily reach them. In early December, they climbed over some mountains and occupied Liping town in Guizhou province on the 14th of December, 1934.
Secondly, at a meeting in Liping on the 28th of December, Mao Zedong strongly opposed the plan to unite with the 2nd and 6th Red military blocs, and proposed to go to the border of Sichuan and Guizhou provinces to occupy the area round Zunyi town as a new military base. His proposition was accepted by the Central Committee, because from their present location, it was difficult to communicate with the two Red blocs. On the 7th of January, 1935, they took Zunyi town.
Here they held the famous Zunyi meeting, in which Mao was appointed to the command of the Red Army again.
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文章时间: 2019-10-16 周三, 下午8:49    标题: 引用回复

Thirdly, though they wanted to establish a new military base in the vicinity of Zunyi town, the National Army continued to harass them. They had to escape to the northern Sichuan province, where Zhang Guotao, in command of the 4th Red military bloc, already set up a base. But that was far away, and they would have to cross various streams. From January to May of 1935, they ran here and there to avoid being destroyed by the National Army. They failed three times in crossing the Chishui Stream. Once they were forced to go back to Zunyi town. On the fourth try, they stole across the stream, then crossed Jinsha Stream and Dadu Stream. They met Zhang Guotao on the 16th of June. Then Mao suggested that they should march towards the northern Gansu province so that they might escape into the Soviet Union when necessary. But Zhang Guotao had three plans. The first plan was that they should go to create a base in northern Sichuan province, southern Gansu province and Xikang province. The second plan was that they should go to the northern Shaanxi province. The third plan was to go west into Xinjiang province.
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文章时间: 2019-10-18 周五, 下午9:04    标题: 引用回复

Fourthly, the two blocs (the central Red Army, renamed as the 1st red military bloc) went together north from the 12th of June to the 7th of July. Then as both Mao and Zhang were in disagreement as to the future plan, each went his own way. Zhang, after marching through the grasslands, refused to keep going north but went back through the grasslands again to Xikang province and wanted to establish his base there. And Mao Zedong, together with Peng Dehuai, Lin Biao (1907–1971), and Ye Jianying (1897–1986), went to southwestern Gansu province. In October 1935, Mao and his men, only about 3,000 left, surmounted the Liupan Mountain and reached the northern part of Shaanxi province. To their surprise, Liu Zhidan was there with his 7,000 men. So they settled there.
As for Zhang Guotao, who had started with 80,000 men, he wanted to found a new Central Committee of the Communist Party and to be the chairman himself. But most of his men had died through the Long March. He had no hope for his personal ambitions. So he turned himself in to the National Party. The Communist Party called him a traitor.
It happened like this: on April 4, 1938, leaders of both the National Party and the Communist Party were to go to worship at the mausoleum of Emperor Huang, a legendary hero recorded in Chinese history books, supposed to have lived five thousand years ago. Zhang went there as the chairman of the Communist Party and met Jiang Dingwen, a leader of the National Party. After the rites were concluded, Zhang told his attendants to go back first as he had something else to deal with. But he jumped into a car the National Party provided for him. And he was gone. He was no longer a member of the Communist Party. At the end of 1948, he arrived in Taiwan in poverty. He seemed to be a forgotten man. In the winter of 1949, he went to Hong Kong with his wife and three sons. In 1958, he went to Canada where his eldest son lived. In 1976 he had a stroke and was paralyzed on the right side. He died on December 2, 1979, at the age of 82.
An interesting note from recent times: People doubted the actual distance the Red Army covered. Therefore, on November 3, 2003, two young Englishmen started on their way to retrace the route the Red Army had covered. They spent 384 days and covered 13,000 li, not 25,000 li.
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文章时间: 2019-10-20 周日, 下午8:57    标题: 引用回复

The military coup d’état in XiAn City

As Japan invaded northeastern China (details in Chapter 3), the Communist Party seized this opportunity to demand that the Communist Party and the National Party unify against Japan in January, 1936. And as Japan occupied the northeastern China, Zhang Xueliang was driven out. Therefore, Chiang Kai-shek ordered Zhang to besiege the Communist Party in northern Shaanxi province on the 20th of September, 1935. But on the 1st of October, in the battle at Mt. Lao, the Red Army annihilated two regiments of Zhang’s army. On the 29th, in another battle, the 107th division and the 619th regiment of Zhang’s army were wiped out, too. On the 22nd of November, his 109th division went alone towards Wuqi Town and camped on the way at Zhilu Town for the night. The division commander thought that the Red Army was far away and could not attack him, and so he let down his vigilance. However, the Red Army took a quick march all night long and surrounded the division. In the morning, the Red Army put the division to rout.
After these defeats, Zhang Xueliang made secret contact with the Communist Party seeking a truce. On the 9th of April, 1936, Zhang went to YanAn city to talk with Zhou Enlai, the representative of the Communist Party. Zhang Xueliang accepted the Communist Party’s demand to unite against Japan. Zhang Xueliang even put in a request to join the Communist Party. Nevertheless, his request was not granted because his father, Zhang Zuolin, a warlord in the northeastern China, had killed some Communist Party members. Anyway, when Deng Xiaoping (1904–1997), an important leader of the Communist Party, was dangerously ill, Zhang procured medication for him and saved his life.
Chiang Kai-shek heard about the situation and was upset with Zhang Xueliang. But at the time, an event happened in Canton, on the 1st of June, 1936, called the 6/1 event. Chen Jitang in Guangdong province and Li Zongren (1891–1969) in Guangxi province wanted to be independent from the central national government, and on that day they sent a telegram from Canton to the central government asking permission to go north to fight Japan. But their real aim was to overthrow the central government.
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文章时间: 2019-10-21 周一, 下午8:52    标题: 引用回复

Chiang Kai-shek sent his army to conquer Chen in Guangdong province and simultaneously brought over Chen’s subordinates. In July, the commander of Chen’s air force betrayed him and turned over to Chiang Kai-shek by flying 70 airplanes under his command to Nanking. Then the commander of his 1st army declared his loyalty to Chiang Kai-shek. So on the 18th of July, Chen Jitang escaped to Hong Kong. Then Li Zongren in Guangxi province had to announce his obedience to the central government.
On the 22nd of October, Chiang Kai-shek flew from Nanking to XiAn city to urge Zhang to continue the attack of the Red Army, but Zhang raised objections. They had a quarrel and Chiang went to Luoyang City. On the 29th day, Zhang went to Luoyang for the celebration of Chiang Kai-shek’s birthday. He wanted to persuade Chiang to unite with the Communist Party against Japan, but Chiang refused. On the 27th of November, Zhang asked to go and fight Japan, but was rejected by Chiang. On the 2nd of December, Zhang flew to Luoyang to inform Chiang that his army might riot and asked Chiang to go to XiAn to talk to his soldiers. This was really a trick to lure Chiang there for a certain purpose. Chiang Kai-shek, unwise as ever, agreed and flew to XiAn with Zhang on the 4th of December. He lodged at Huaqing Pool on Lishan Mountain. Huaqing Pool was a resort built around a bathing pool with hot spring water. Actually the bathing pool was also inside a room. It was built in Tang Dynasty (AD 618–907) for the famous Yang, imperial concubine of Emperor Xuanzong (AD 685–762).
On December 9, the Communist Party organized a demonstration with crowds. A boy was said to be injured by the police, which incited the wrath of the mob. Zhang went to see Chiang Kai-shek, who wanted Zhang to stop the demonstration, but Zhang did not follow Chiang’s instruction. On December 11, at night, Zhang summoned his generals and asked them to make preparations for a military coup the next day. Accordingly, in the morning of December 12, Zhang went to see Chiang Kai-shek with soldiers and took him into custody.
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文章时间: 2019-10-23 周三, 下午9:06    标题: 引用回复

That evening, Mailing Soong, Chiang Kai-shek’s wife, was told of the event and immediately thought of Donald William Henry (1875–1946, died in Shanghai), an Australian reporter, who was a friend of both Chiang and Zhang. Soong and Henry immediately took the train to Nanking. At 8 o’clock in the morning on December 13, Soong sent Zhang a telegram and Henry did, too, saying that they would be flying to XiAn City. On December 16, the national government ordered Zhang to release Chiang at once, but Zhang declined. So the government gathered, intending to attack XiAn, and prepared to send bombers. The Communist Party suggested killing Chiang. But on the 17th, Stalin wrote to the Communist Party saying that he was opposed to killing Chiang, who, in his opinion, would be a qualified leader in resisting Japan. He demanded that Chiang Kai-shek be released. So the Communist Party agreed.
When Soong and Henry arrived in XiAn, they went to see Chiang Kai-shek at once. Soong persuaded Chiang to go along with the plan, saying that it would be better to act against Japan than to be killed by the Communist Party. As a player in the anti-Japan resistance, he would be a hero. Killed by the Communist Party, he would be nothing. So Chiang Kai-shek accepted the agreement on the 24th day about the unity with the Communist Party to fight Japan, etc. But he did not sign on the agreement. Some of Zhang’s subordinates were not satisfied. Zhang said that if Chiang wanted to go back from the agreement once he was released, he would do that even if he signed the agreement. If Chiang kept his promise, what did it matter that he signed it or not.
Chiang Kai-shek was let go in the afternoon of December 25, and Zhang accompanied him back to Nanking. He was kept in secret confinement till Chiang Kai-shek died on April 5, 1975. Then he was restored to freedom and died on October 15, 2001, in Hawaii. This event ended the war between the Communist Party and the National Party and began the Sino–Japanese war all over China.
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