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[原创] Two Republics in China
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海外逸士

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加入时间: 2005/11/08
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文章时间: 2019-11-03 周日, 下午9:01    标题: 引用回复

The Outbreak of the Sino–Japanese War, Or the Anti-Japanese War

The double 7s event—Lugou Bridge event

At 7:30PM on the 7th of July (07/07), 1937, the Japanese army, stationed at the other side of Lugou Bridge over the Yongding River (with the Chinese army on this side of the bridge), 15 km from Peking, began to exercise, conducting a sham battle in the deserted fields under their control close to Wanping Town. (Wanping had been founded in 1540 in the Ming Dynasty as a satellite town for the defense of Peking.) At about 12:40 that night, reports of gun shots were heard by the Chinese soldiers across the river. Japanese officers said that a soldier in their army had gone missing in the exercise and they heard reports of guns, so the soldier must have been killed by Chinese soldiers. On this pretext they tried to come into Wanping town to search for him. The Chinese army guarding the town, of course, refused their request, answering that everyone in the town was asleep and must not be disturbed, and besides, no Chinese soldier had fired a shot. Therefore, at 5 o’clock in the morning on July 8, they opened fire on the defensive Chinese army at this side of the bridge and also blasted the town with artillery. The Chinese army had to fight back. Historians consider this is the event that lit the fuse of the Sino–Japanese War.
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文章时间: 2019-11-04 周一, 下午9:26    标题: 引用回复

Next day, the Communist Party sent out a public telegram to call on people to resist the Japanese invaders. And Chiang Kai-shek made a speech, saying, “No matter where you are, in the south or in the north, no matter who you are, old or young, everyone has the responsibility to resist, everyone must be determined to make a sacrifice.” in the previous six years Chiang Kai-shek had stuck to a policy of not fighting the Japanese because he was not confident they could achieve the final victory, and he needed time to prepare. He had hired German advisors to train his officers and soldiers up to German standards. He stored ammunition and expanded his air force. He communicated with England, the US and Russia seeking diplomatic support. Though he lacked the self-confidence to win the war, he foresaw that the final victory belonged to China. As a small country, however strong militarily, Japan could never occupy such a big country like China.
In the first two days of fighting, Japan could see that they were not going to take the bridge easily. So they proposed peace talks to make time to gather more troops. Japan maneuvered its army from Korea and northeastern China to where the battles were, amassing 400,000 troops. On July 9, 11 and 19, peace agreements were signed three times, but they were useless, only serving to numb the Chinese army with a false outlook of peace.
On July 25, the Japanese army suddenly attacked the Chinese army stationed at Langfang, and 14 Japanese airplanes raided the barracks of the Chinese army. At noon on July 26, the Japanese army occupied Langfang. Then Japan demanded the Chinese army to withdraw from the region of Peking and Tianjin City, a demand that was of course rejected. At 1:00AM on July 26, a Japanese regiment started from Tianjin City and arrived at Fengtai, close to Peking, at 2:00PM. They asked to enter Peking to protect their citizens in the city. They were permitted in. When just half of the regiment was inside the city gates, the Chinese army fired at them. The regiment was cut in two, half inside and half outside the city. The inside half escaped to the embassy area, into the Japanese barracks in the Japanese embassy. The other half returned to Fengtai. On July 28, the Japanese army started to assault Peking. Chinese army resisted and suffered huge sacrifices. In the night of July 28, the Chinese army had to retreat from Peking. The next day, Japan took Peking, and the day after, Tianjin City fell into their hands as well.
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加入时间: 2005/11/08
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文章时间: 2019-11-06 周三, 下午10:05    标题: 引用回复

The 8/13 event—battle in Shanghai

In southern China, Japan wanted to occupy Shanghai. On August 9, two Japanese mariners in Shanghai drove a car and trespassed into the Hongqiao airport area to fire guns, but they were shot dead by the Chinese guards. On August 13, Japanese mariners following their tanks attacked the Chinese army stationed along the Songhu railway, but they were beaten. On August 14, the national government made a statement calling for self-defense in resistance of Japan. The statement was really a general mobilization order to all Chinese people. The central national government organized several military blocs to defend Shanghai. On August 15, the Japanese government issued a statement, too, saying that in order to punish the Chinese army for its rash action and to urge the Nanking government not to take severe steps, the Japanese government had to resort to war. They sent more troops by sea to the Shanghai area. In joint action with the mariners, the Japanese army planned to occupy the strategically important zone in the north of Shanghai.
Chiang Kai-shek divided the warring area into five zones. Shanghai was in the third zone. On August 17, the Chinese army counterattacked and the 87th division took the Japanese sailors’ club. The 88th division fought Japanese troops in Hongkou park. The two divisions jointly broke through the Japanese defensive line to Huishan wharf. At the same time, the Chinese air force attacked that of Japan and also their warships. They downed 47 Japanese airplanes and sank one Japanese cruiser. Two divisions sailed from Japan to the eastern region of Shanghai, arriving on the 22nd. And on the 23rd, they landed at Wusong district. On August 24, the Chinese 15th military bloc entered Shanghai and assailed the two Japanese divisions just as they were setting foot on land. On September 1, a thousand Japanese soldiers attacked the Chinese cannon site and both had heavy casualties. Japan gathered 30 warships to support their army in an attack at Baoshan.
After September 11, Chiang Kai-shek himself took the command of the third zone. From then till the beginning of October, the Japanese army increased to 200,000 strong. But they did not have a decisive advantage over the Chinese army till early November. At dawn on November 5, under the cover of heavy fog and lifted by the rising tide, Japanese army landed at Hangzhou Bay. On November 6, they took Jinshan and used a vise strategy to attack the Chinese army from two sides. On November 8, under such unfavorable conditions, Chiang had to give order to retreat. On November 9, the Japanese army occupied Songjiang Town and on November 12 they took Shanghai. During the battles, the people of Shanghai had contributed 3.3 million yuan to support the Chinese army.
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文章时间: 2019-11-08 周五, 下午9:47    标题: 引用回复

The battles in Shanxi province

The Japanese army from north marched toward Pingxing Pass in Shanxi province on the 24th of September, 1937, but the Chinese army was lying in wait for them. A Japanese regiment entered the ambush zone and was annihilated. On September 29, the Japanese army broke through the Chinese army’s defensive line at Ruyuekou and attacked the rear of Chinese army at Pingxing Pass. The Chinese army had to beat a retreat to Taiyuan City, capital of Shanxi province. Qikou was an important strategic place, the gate to Taiyuan. On October 14, the Japanese army used a vise ruse to attack Qikou from two wings, but met with strong resistance. There were heavy casualties on both sides. On October 21, the Japanese army sent a division to attack Niangzi Pass with the intention of going in as an indirect route to take Taiyuan from the north side. On October 26, a Japanese division sent a detachment to go round to the back of the Chinese army defending Niangzi Pass. The Chinese army in the Pass had to withdraw. The Japanese army took Niangzi Pass and chased the retreating Chinese to Yangquan. Then the Japanese army occupied Yangquan and marched toward Shouyang, closer to Taiyuan, on the 2nd of November.
Another Japanese military bloc took a different route and took Xiyang on its way to Taiyuan on November 2. The two Japanese blocs converged on Taiyuan. On November 3, the Japanese 5th bloc reached the northern edges of Taiyuan. On November 5, the Japanese broke through the Chinese defensive line and approached the city wall on November 6. In the meantime, the Japanese 20th military bloc penetrated the Chinese defensive line in the southern perimeter. On November 7, the Japanese army surrounded Taiyuan and on the 8th they began an onslaught on the city; at night they entered the city from the northern side. The Chinese army had to escape and then the Japanese army took the whole city.
In February of 1938, the Japanese 108th military bloc took Dongyang Pass and then another two towns. In early March, more towns were taken. By then all the important cities and towns in Shanxi province had fallen into the hands of Japan. Out of 105 cities and towns in Shanxi province, 102 of them were occupied by Japanese army.
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文章时间: 2019-11-10 周日, 下午9:25    标题: 引用回复

The slaughter in Nanking

By October 1937, Nanking, the capital of the national government, was exposed to the attack of Japanese army. Therefore, Chiang Kai-shek decided to set up a temporary capital in Chongqing City in Sichuan province in southwestern China, at a safe distance from the Japanese army.
At first some generals persisted in defending Nanking at any cost. So the national government gathered 100,000 soldiers for that purpose. No matter, as Japanese army approached Nanking, the government at last had to declare that the government was moving to Chongqing City on the 20th of November. Government offices, universities and schools moved inland, one after another. Even residents of the city escaped from Nanking. In June, there were 1,015,000 residents in the city, but in December, only 468,000 or 568,000 remained. On the 20th of December, for humanitarian reasons, over 20 Westerners were still there organizing the international committee of the Nanjing safety zone to take in and protect refugees.
The Chinese national government recognized their efforts and supplied them with cash, food and police protection. Japan was far from pleased, but declared that if there were no Chinese soldiers hiding there, they would not attack it. But after they took the city, their soldiers forced entry into the zone, stealing private belongings, raping women and arresting and killing young men. Several times the international committee made protests to the Japanese embassy and Japanese army authorities, but in vain. During this slaughter, the committee protected 250,000 refugees. On the 18th of February, 1938, the organization was renamed the Nanking international rescue committee, acting only in a rescue role. By June, it was closed entirely.
On the 7th of November, Tokyo gave orders to limit the action of the Japanese army to the east of Suzhou and Jiaxing region. But the army ignored the order and pursued the retreating Chinese army, intending to occupy Nanking. They advanced quickly as no Chinese army fought them on the way. Seeing this, Tokyo issued orders to take Nanking on December 1.
The Japanese army marched so fast that their supply units were left far behind. When they were approaching Nanking, food was scarce. The soldiers pillaged the Chinese villages for anything edible and wantonly violated women. To cover their crimes, they even slew all the people in the village and burned everything. As they came to Nanking, at least 30,000 Chinese people were killed along the way. It was a rehearsal for the slaughter in Nanking.
On December 8, the Japanese army took all the defensive sites outside Nanking. The worst battle took place at Yuhua Terrace outside the city. Two Chinese brigades were guarding the place. From December 9–11, the Japanese army kept on sending reinforcements for the attack, aided by their artillery and air raids, until every Chinese soldier was killed. When the Japanese troops reached the terrace, no one was alive. Then the Japanese army cleared all the defensive lines outside the city, and the Chinese army in the city had to retreat. On December 13, the Japanese army entered the city. Some Chinese soldiers who did not have time to escape stripped off their uniforms and disguised themselves as civilians. Some ten thousand Chinese were taken captive. They were all killed on instructions from the Japanese army authorities. They also searched for other Chinese soldiers in disguise. Anyone they suspected was killed. Many of them were really unarmed civilians. They even murdered old people and children. They killed all the women they had raped.
On December 13, 1937, a Japanese newspaper, Tokyo nichi nichi (mainichi shimbun), reported that two Japanese officers, Mukai Ming and Noda Takeshi, had a competition to see who could kill more Chinese people. Encouraged by their superiors, they declared that whoever was first to kill 100 Chinese people was a hero. They practiced this slaying from Gourong to Tangshan, and Mukai Ming killed 89 while Noda Takeshi killed 78. Certainly, we can all agree they were not heroes. However, the competition continued. When they met at Mt. Zinjin, both had dented the blades of their swords. Noda Takeshi said that he had killed 105 and Mukai Ming said that he had killed 106. However, there was no witness. So they started the competition anew, aiming at 150. The newspaper ran pictures with captions. Both these brave men were executed in Nanking for their crimes after the surrender of Japan.
Statistics show that during the two months the Japanese occupied Nanking, about 80,000 women were raped, some of them pregnant, from girls as young as 12 to women as old as 65. Many died after the violence. They raped women right in front of their families. Many people were buried alive. The victims were forced by the Japanese soldiers to dig their own pits. During the six weeks of the occupation, 23.8% of structures inside and outside the city were destroyed by fire, 63% had been plundered and 88.5% were structurally damaged. They used military trucks to carry away their loot. By some estimates, 26,584 antique curios or artifacts were missing, such as bronze wares from the Shang Dynasty (1765–1122 BC), along with 7,720 paintings and 45,979 valuable books. Some 109,000 casualties were found and buried. The Nanking branch of the World Red Swastika Society gave out statistics in 1945 claiming that from December 22, 1937 to October 30, 1938, they found and buried 43,123 bodies—1,793 inside the city and 41,330 outside the city, including 75 women and 20 children. Those statistics were from just one organization. The victims totaled 300,000 in all.
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加入时间: 2005/11/08
文章: 1704
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积分: 9493


文章时间: 2019-11-11 周一, 下午9:21    标题: 引用回复

The battles in Shandong province

Now the Japanese army occupied the north of China and also Shanghai and the Nanking area. What more could they want? Well, the Shandong province, which is between the northern provinces and the southern area. Shandong province was then still under the control of the Chinese army. Xuzhou City was a place of strategic importance. So battles were waged in its vicinity and expanding into adjoining provinces. If the Japanese army occupied Xuzhou, they could go west along the Longhai railway to attack Zhengzhou in Henan province and then go south along the Pinghan railway to attack Wuhan in Hubei province. So the Japanese army came down from the north and came up from the south.
At the beginning of the Anti-Japanese War in 1937, Han Fuju, the chairman of the government of Shandong province, was ordered to take charge of the defensive line along the Yellow River and prevent the Japanese army from crossing the river. But when the Japanese army rushed down upon him from the north, he fled as if to open the gate and invite the enemy in. The Japanese army easily crossed the river. In early March 1938, they occupied JiNan, the capital of Shandong province.
On the 26th of January, 1938, the 13th division of the Japanese army marched from the south towards Fengyang and Bangbu in Anhui province. The Chinese army stationed there, after efforts at resistance, fell back towards the west. On the 3rd of February, the Japanese division took Linhuai Pass and Bangbu. On February 9–10, the 13th division crossed the Huai River to the north. The 51st Chinese army stationed itself on the north bank and fought the Japanese army.
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