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[原创] Two Republics in China
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海外逸士

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文章时间: 2020-1-27 周一, 下午9:35    标题: 引用回复

On October 2, Chiang Kai-shek flew to Shenyang to summon a military meeting and decided to send seven divisions from Shandong province by sea to the Hulu Islands, and from there to Jinzhou. Next day he left Shenyang by plane. When Lin Biao learned of Chiang’s plan, he accelerated his attack on Jinzhou. If the Tashan line was broken through by the national reinforcements, the whole campaign would end in failure.
On October 10, the national reinforcements reached Tashan and the fight started. On October 13, Tashan was still under the control of the Liberation Army. On the 14th, Tashan changed hands nine times, but the National Army still could not break through the line. While the fighting was severe at Tashan, an attack on Jinzhou began at 10 o’clock that morning. Some 500 cannons fired at targets in the city. At 11:30AM, the communist foot soldiers rushed forth. When the soldiers in the front fell, the soldiers behind took up their positions. The attack lasted till 6:00PM on October 15 when the Liberation Army entered the city. Over 100,000 National Army fighters were eliminated. The vice commander-in-chief, Fan Hanji, and the commander of the 6th bloc, Lu Junquan, were captured. When the national reinforcements heard of the fall of Jinzhou, they retreated to the Hulu islands.
There were only two cities left to be conquered: Shenyang and Changchun. The eastern half of Changchun was guarded by the 60th army, under the command of Zeng Zesheng, who was a friend of Lu Junquan. Therefore, Lin Biao ordered Lu Junquan to contact Zeng Zesheng to talk him into betraying Chiang Kai-shek and turning over to the Communist Party. A telegram was sent to Zeng in Lu’s name. Seeing the National Army was in a bad situation, Zeng declared an uprising on October 17, with his three divisions, 26,000 in number. That night, the Liberation Army stealthily took up position in the eastern half of Changchun. On October 19 day, the new 7th army surrendered to the Liberation Army. The commander-in-chief in the city, Zheng Tongguo, contacted the Liberation Army and asked for permission to put up two more days’ fake resistance before he surrendered. After he surrendered, a false news bulletin should then be issued that he was captured. Thus Changchun City fell into the possession of the Liberation Army. On October 31st, the Liberation Army surrounded the last city, Shenyang, and at dawn November 1, the attack on the city commenced. After one day’s fight, the Communist Liberation Army occupied the city. All the northeastern provinces were under the control of the Communist Party.
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文章时间: 2020-1-29 周三, 下午10:10    标题: 引用回复

The campaign in Huaihai River area

The Huaihai River campaign took place between the 6th of November in 1948 and the 10th of January in 1949. The Liberation Army threw in 600,000 men and the National Army had 800,000. The casualties, including wounded, of the Liberation Army were over 100,000 while those of the National Army, including those captured, were as high as 550,000.
The defense minister of the National Party was convinced that if they wanted to control the Yangtze River defensive line, they must control the Huaihai River defensive line. Obviously, the war in the Huaihai River area was very important to the national government. While the campaign in the northeastern provinces were still going on, a battle in JiNan City was engaged. The Liberation Army used 140,000 soldiers to attack the city and 180,000 to block the reinforcements from Xuzhou City. At that time, the National Army in Xuzhou area should have gone to the rescue of the army in JiNan. But the Liberation Army blocked their way. They hesitated to advance.
After the Liberation Army took JiNan on the 24th of September, 1948, they marched towards Xuzhou. The National Army gathered in Xuzhou area for the defense. On the night of the 6th of November, the Liberation Army officially began its campaign in the Huaihai River area. When they found that the national 7th military bloc was receding, they pursued and caught the 7th bloc on the 7th day while the bloc was crossing the Great Canal.
The 63rd army and the 83rd division, bringing up the rear, were quickly wiped out. When the commander of the 7th bloc called the commander of the 13th bloc, the latter refused to come to his assistance, saying that he had to adhere to the original plan to retreat. (That was one of the reasons why the National Army was eaten up bit by bit. No cooperation between commanders. They could not form a fist to strike at the foe, only using fingers separately to tear at it.) On the 8th of November, three-fourths of the national Army defending the river line held an uprising under the instructions of the Communist Party members who were lurking within the army. Therefore, the Liberation Army cut through the line easily.
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文章时间: 2020-1-31 周五, 下午10:20    标题: 引用回复

Having crossed the Great Canal, the national 7th bloc decided to stay at Zhanzhuang and to fight the pursuing Liberation Army. Anyway, more liberation forces came and surrounded the 7th bloc on November 11. Chiang Kai-shek ordered the 13th bloc and the 2nd bloc to rescue the 7th bloc, and moreover, sent the 6th bloc and the 8th bloc to the Xuzhou area. The forces of the National Army increased to 800,000. On November 13, the reinforcements of the 2nd and 13th blocs came to the Daxujia line, and were stopped there by the liberation 3rd field army. Since the reinforcements of the National Army got through the blockading line, the Liberation Army quickened its attack and annihilated the 7th bloc on November 22.
On the 30th of November, 300,000 defensive National Army under the command of Du Yuming left Xuzhou and went south. A detachment of Liberation Army of 300,000 chased them. At the time, Chiang Kai-shek ordered Du to go southeast to rescue the 12th bloc, the 2nd bloc, the 13th bloc and the 16th bloc, separately surrounded in the region northeast to Yong Town. But on the 4th of December, the 16th bloc acted on its own, trying to break through the encirclement, and was eliminated. On December 12, the Liberation Army pounced on the 12th bloc and wiped it out on the December 15.
Then the Liberation Army aimed at Du Yuming and asked him to surrender, but Du refused, even though he was already surrounded. Two more blocs were annihilated on the 9th of January in 1949, and Du was taken captive on the 10th. The 6th and 8th blocs deserted their defensive posts between the Huaihai River and the Yangtze River and retreated to the south of the Yangtze River. The vast expanse of land to the north of the Yangtze River fell into the hands of the Liberation Army. Thus ended the campaign in the Huaihai River area.
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文章时间: 2020-2-02 周日, 下午10:08    标题: 引用回复

The campaign in Peking and Tianjin area

This campaign lasted for 64 days, from the 29th of November, 1948 to the 31st of January, 1949. The Liberation Army threw 1,000,000 troops into that campaign and the National Army gathered over 500,000. The Liberation Army had 39,000 casualties (including the wounded) while the National Army lost 52,000 (including captured).
When the liberation 4th field army occupied the northeastern provinces, they marched south to attack Peking and Tianjin. General Fu Zuoyi (1895–1974) was the commander of the defense of Peking. Before the campaign started, Chiang Kai-shek wanted Fu to bring his army south to strengthen the defensive line by the Yangtze River. But Fu did not follow Chiang’s orders. Fu planned to keep only Peking and Tianjin area in his control and give up the other towns. If the situation became critical, he could escape by sea and get to south of the Yangtze River.
The Liberation Army’s strategy was to surround each of the cities and towns separately to prevent anyone from escaping. They saw Peking as the center of this area and attacked towns along the outermost circle, and closing in their encirclement towards the center. In late December, they took over two towns in the west. On the 14th of January, 1949, they besieged Tianjin City when the defensive army refused to surrender. After fighting for 29 hours, they entered the city, eliminating 10 divisions, 160,000 soldiers (including captured).
At last they came to Peking. They did not want any damage done to the old capital city, and they therefore sent someone to talk to Fu Zuoyi. Seeing that escape was out of the question, he declared an uprising and went over to the Liberation Army. Later, in the second republic of China, he was appointed the Minister of Water Resources.
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文章时间: 2020-2-03 周一, 下午9:46    标题: 引用回复

The end of the second civil war

As the situation became more dire for the national government, Chiang Kai-shek resigned, leaving everything in the hands of the vice president Li Zongren (1891–1969), who proposed starting peace talks with the Communist Party. Meanwhile, Chiang transferred 4.5 million taels of gold and $384 million to Taiwan (the island of Formosa). At the beginning of 1949, the national government had already moved its capital from Nanking to Canton. On April 1, 1949, the representatives of both the Communist Party and the National Party had peace talks in Peking. The Communist Party wanted the National Party to accept conditions that amounted to a complete surrender. of course, the national government spurned such a suggestion.
On the night of the 21st of April, the combined Liberation Army of the 2nd and 3rd field armies crossed the Yangtze River in wooden sailboats in the face of artillery fire from the National Army along the river. They broke through the weak spots of the defensive line and set foot on the south bank of the River. The 35th army, belonging to the 8th bloc of the 3rd field army, were tasked with attacking Nanking. On the night of the 23rd, they crossed the river and reached Nanking. All the important members of the national government had already left the city by air. So on April 24, the Liberation Army entered the city as if it was entirely undefended. Afterwards, the Communist government decided that the 23rd of April should be the anniversary of the liberation of Nanking, though formally they took over the city on the 24th.
The Liberation Army took over Hangzhou on May 3, and Hankou on May 18, and Wuchang and Hanyang on May 17. They took Nanchang on May 22. At the same time, on May 12, the Liberation Army began to attack Shanghai. They first laid siege to the satellite towns around Shanghai and met strong resistance. Anyway, they took them one by one, and on May 26, they entered the urban area of Shanghai. The next day, all of Shanghai was controlled by the Liberation Army. People in Shanghai welcomed the Liberation Army just as they had welcomed Chiang Kai-shek’s army after the long occupation by Japan, as they had been disappointed by the corruption in Chiang Kai-shek’s government. So now they pinned their hopes on the Communist Party, not knowing at that time whether the Communist Party would disappoint them just the same.
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文章时间: 2020-2-05 周三, 下午9:39    标题: 引用回复

On April 24, the Liberation Army took Taiyuan, the capital of Shanxi province, and took XiAn, the capital of Shaanxi province on May 20. They stormed into Qingdao, a harbor city in Shandong province, on June 2. On August 4, Cheng Quan, chairman of Hunan province and Chen Mingren, commander of the 1st bloc there, declared he was betraying the national government and went over to the Liberation Army, and so the capital Changsha changed hands peacefully. The Liberation Army occupied Lanzhou, the capital of Gansu province, on August 26, and then Fuzhou, the capital of Fujian province, and then Canton on October 14. The national government had already packed up and moved to Zhongqing again. On October 17, they took Amoy but failed in the attempt to take Quemoy on the 25th and the Zhoushan islands on the 3rd of November.
In November, Chiang Kai-shek flew to Chongqing and on November 20, Li Zongren went to Hong Kong. On November 15, the Liberation Army took Guiyang, the capital of Guizhou province, and Chongqing on November 30 when the national government had already moved to Chengdu. On the 7th of December, the national government declared it was moving its capital offshore to Taipei in Taiwan. So from December 8 to 10, all the VIPs of the government were flying to Taipei. On December 9, the chairmen of Yunnan province and of Xikang province declared they were siding with the Liberation Army, which entered these provinces without any hitch. On December 27, they took Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan province. The next spring, on March 27, 1950, they took Xichang. By then, almost the whole country was under the control of the Communist Party.
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文章时间: 2020-2-07 周五, 下午10:18    标题: 引用回复

Part Two The Second Republic—The People’s Republic of China

Chapter 5. The Establishment of the People’s Republic of China

The Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference

When the Communist Liberation Army was still fighting the National Army, the Communist Party summoned the Chinese people’s political consultative conference from the 21st to 30th of September, 1949. A few so-called democratic parties attended the conference, such as the Revolutionary Committee of the National Party (part of the National Party that favored the Communist Party), Chinese Democratic League, China Democratic National Construction Association, China Association for Promoting Democracy, Chinese Peasants and Workers Democratic Party, China Zhigong Party, and Jiusan Society, eight in all. These so-called democratic parties have been give the ironic label of “vases” as they were nothing but empty vessels to decorate the political Communist Party conferences as symbols of democracy, because they have no say in whatever national affairs. They can only say yes to whatever the Communist Party says, and if there is a vote, every one of them will put up their hands to make up a 100% positive vote so that the Communist Party can boast of having full support. A standing committee was formed to handle routine matters. The chairman, vice chairmen, and the chief secretary controlled everything. But the chairman had to be a top-ranking Communist Party member.
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文章时间: 2020-2-09 周日, 下午9:42    标题: 引用回复

In this conference a so-called Common Program was passed as the temporary constitution, which was composed of 7 chapters and 60 articles. The Common Program outlined the state system and the system of the government as the “democracy and dictatorship of the Chinese people” (meaning democracy to the people and dictatorship to the enemy), who consisted of the proletariat (workers), peasantry, petty bourgeoisie, national bourgeoisie, and other democratic patriots. (The Communist Party divides the bourgeoisie in China into two types: national capitalists and bureaucratic capitalists.) It was a united front with the proletariat in the leadership (through the Communist Party) on the basis of the alliance of workers and peasants. The government would confiscate all the private properties of the bureaucratic capitalists, which denoted only Chiang Kai-shek, Tse-ven Soong (Chiang’s brother-in-law, who was the head of the executive office, equivalent to the Cabinet), Kung Hsiang-His (simplified as H. H. Kung, and jokingly called Ha-Ha- Kung, who married the sister of Chiang Kai-shek’s wife and was the financial minister most of the time), and the Chen brothers, Chen Guofu (the minister of the central organization ministry of the National Party) and Chen Lifu (education minister). Their father was the sworn brother of Chiang Kai-shek. All other private business owners were defined as national capitalists.
The major articles of the Common Program—the temporary constitution—stated that citizens of the Peoples’ Republic of China had the rights of voting and nomination, but actually none but the leaders of the Communist Party had the rights to nominate candidates. They could nominate whomever they liked and even themselves. As for voting rights, common voters could not vote for whomever they preferred, but were forced to vote for those on the list made by the party leaders. If there were ten candidates, a voter could not vote for fewer than ten. He or she had to make a mark next to every name on the list, or he or she would get in trouble. Once a young worker crossed out a name on the list and added the name of his boss. Although he was also a party member, he was severely criticized for not following the rules.
Another major article asserted that the people of the republic were to enjoy freedom of thought, speech, gathering, organizing societies, communication, personal liberty, living anywhere, moving anywhere, religions and beliefs, and to demonstrate. But all these rights existed only on paper. In reality, no one could exercise such rights. Everything going on under the sun, or even at night, was monitored by the Communist Party.
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文章时间: 2020-2-10 周一, 下午10:03    标题: 引用回复

The Ceremony of the Establishment of the People’s Republic of China

At 2:00PM on the 1st of October, 1949, the committee of the central people’s government had its first session and selected Mao Zedong as chairman. Zhu De, Liu Shaoqi, Soong Ching-ling, Li Jishen, Zhang Lan, and Gao Gang became the vice chairmen. Zhou Enlai was the Premier of the state council and the foreign minister as well, and Zhu De was the commander-in-chief of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army. At 3:00, a ceremony marking the establishment of the People’s Republic of China was held at TianAnMen (literally Gate of Heavenly Peace). Chairman Mao announced the formation of the People’s Republic of China. On December 2, the central people’s government approved the decision to make October 1 the national day every year.
Accordingly, on the 1st of October, 1950, the leaders of the Communist Party were expected to stand at TianAnMen to watch the parade going through TianAnMen Square. A plot was revealed to murder the leaders. Two tenants had moved into a house at No. 17 in the Ganyu Alley northeast of TianAnMen, two mercenary spies, one Italian and the other Japanese. One night in February 1950, two strangers came to see the Japanese man, who had an 82 mortar. In mid-September, the Chinese police department intercepted a letter mailed to Tokyo, Japan, in which there was a sketch of the clear outline of TianAnMen with two black arrows, one pointing to the top of the gate and the other pointing to tiny figures drawn on the square. The letter described the layout of TianAnMan Square. Through analysis, Beijing police declared that it was evidence of a serious scheme to murder the government leaders. After further investigations, at dawn on September 27, the police rushed to the No. 17 house and broke in. They took the Japanese and Italian spies into custody. In the Japanese man’s room they found letters, documents, diagrams, the 82 mortar, and a pistol with 235 bullets, and found in the Italian’s room a packet of poisonous powder, a diagram with the outline of TianAnMen and a parabola pointing to it. On October 10, the Central Committee of the Communist Party (not the central government) issued an instruction to round up and arrest reactionaries, including spies. Who would be considered a reactionary? Those executing the instruction would define it at will.
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文章时间: 2020-2-12 周三, 下午10:06    标题: 引用回复

The Ruling System of the People’s Republic of China

There are two vertical hierarchies in the ruling system under the Communist Party. One is the formal government line and the other is the party line. On the same level, there are party organizations as well as government departments. Let’s take Shanghai for an example. On the municipal level, the mayor is the head of the Shanghai government, but there is also the party secretary of the Shanghai municipal committee. The mayor must obey the party secretary, which means that the party secretary is the real head of the city, the over-lord. For every department or bureau in the municipal government, there is also a party organization on the same level.
Urban Shanghai is divided into 10 precincts with the same two-dimensional ruling system at every level. Under the precinct level are street committees, under which are resident committees which are the basic ruling cells. Every resident committee comprises the residents in one block. All cadres of these committees at different levels are paid by the government. Then every block is divided into several groups. The group leaders, though appointed, get no pay from the government. They are either housewives or retired people. The group leaders must report to the resident committee what happens in the block and if they suspect any resident of anything unusual, they must report on that. The head of the resident committee is called director and there is also a party secretary.
The municipal police station also has a party secretary. On the precinct level, there is a precinct station under which there are several police branches at the same level with the street committees. Every police branch will assign a policeman to work with the resident committee and the resident committee cadres obey the policeman.
In the suburbs of Shanghai there are 10 counties. Every county ruled over several villages, which more are called communes in the period from the Great Leap Forward to the end of the Great Cultural Revolution. Under the commune level there are productive teams. All peasants belong to different teams. Peasants and city residents are all tied to where they live and are not generally free to relocate. All their behavior and actions will be reported to the party at different levels. People may work in companies of all sorts, or in stores and schools, belonging to the government. They are told to watch over each other’s behavior and actions and report to the party if anything is suspicious. Everyone takes it seriously, because if one reports some colleague’s misbehavior, he is deemed loyal to the party and will receive some compensation such as a promotion, a small raise, or even be allowed to join the party—the fastest way to become an official. Even relatives and family members will report on their near ones for their own benefits. Under this sort of system one feels that there are spies all around. That is how the Chinese people lived until Deng Xiaoping’s 1978 economic reform and “opening up” policy. (Of course not everyone liked that either: Under this sort of system, it seems that everything is suddenly open, like prostitution, embezzlement and corruption.)
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文章时间: 2020-2-14 周五, 下午10:09    标题: 引用回复

Chapter 6. The Massacre of Reactionaries and the Suppression of Bandits

The Movement to Arrest and Kill Reactionaries

The action against “reactionaries” began in December 1950 and went on until October 1951. It involved 3 million people. So lots of innocent people were arrested and many of them were executed. At that time, people were easily executed without proper legal procedures. A person could be killed just on the word of a work team leader. Fan Yuanmao, a communist activist, told of his experience at that time. He had been a district government leader and presided over many public judgments, that is, meetings to decide how many people and which ones should be executed. At one of such meeting, twelve people would be shot to death. A few more people were also named, who were called “to accompany those going to die,” but in fact they were sent there to watch the twelve people being shot, which served as a lesson to others not to do anything against the Party. At Fan Yuanmao’s order, those persons were dragged out into an open field to be executed just as pigs are dragged into a slaughter house. One of the few watchers was mistakenly killed. When asked what to do about the error, Fan answered that he would just hand in another form with the name of that person to bring the number of those executed up to thirteen. Easily settled. No other procedures needed. The lives of common Chinese people weigh no more than a feather, as a Chinese saying goes.
In some places, father and son, brothers, cousins, were killed together, maybe the whole family executed, just like in the feudal age under the rule of the emperors. One “funny” story says that the names of those who were to be executed were written in a booklet, which would be given to a cadre of higher rank for final approval. That guy would stamp a seal on each page that meant that the death decision was final. After the guy stamped a few pages, he stood up to get a glass of water. Then a gust of wind blew in and turned two pages over. When the guy came back to sit at his desk, he continued to stamp the pages till the last page. So the couple of people whose names were on the pages without a stamp were not executed. The gust of wind saved them. All in all, years later, the Party admitted that many innocent people were mistakenly executed. They died for nothing. Victims of the Party and Mao’s overly drastic actions.
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文章时间: 2020-2-16 周日, 下午10:05    标题: 引用回复

It has been argued that in so many dynasties in the history of China, and elsewhere, many innocent people have been mistakenly killed. It’s difficult to make comparisons. But it is totally wrong to kill innocent people and it does not matter how many or how few are killed. According to the Communist Party, all the dynasties in history were a form of feudalism, a bad political system. That innocent people were killed in a bad system may be no surprise. But the Communist Party of China boasted that socialism is the best political system in the world and claimed from the beginning that the Party was serving the people. So they have no right to kill innocent people as they said they are for the people. Apparently, a hypothetical system is one thing and the individuals who seek to establish and implement it may be a different story altogether.
Some ridiculous things happened during this movement. In February of 1951, Mao summoned a meeting to decide the rate at which people should be executed. They decided that the rate should be one in a thousand, and at first, half of this number should be killed, and then the policy should be reviewed. Mao gave clear instructions to the mayors of Shanghai and Nanking, saying, “Shanghai is a large city of 6 million, and in Shanghai hardly more than 200 are executed out of over 20,000 arrested. It is not enough. In my opinion, at least 3,000 or so should be executed. Nanking was the capital of the National Party; the reactionaries there should be executed and I don’t mean a few more than 200. Far more must be executed in Nanking.” Mao’s decision to kill people was not based on crimes those people committed but based on his own whim.
On the 21st of February, 1950, the state council issued the “Rules for punishing reactionaries in the People’s Republic of China.” Here reactionaries were defined as: people contacting imperialists; contacting, instigating and bribing officials, armed forces and militia to commit treason; gathering armed crowds for rebellion; joining spy organizations; organizing or utilizing any religious groups for reactionary purposes; robbing or damaging public or private property or public equipment; using poison to kill people; making fake documents or IDs; instigating crowds against the government; sowing discord among government officials; spreading rumors; stealing across territory borders; breaking into or escaping from jails; hiding or protecting reactionaries, etc. It didn’t matter if the action had been completed or not.
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文章时间: 2020-2-17 周一, 下午9:57    标题: 引用回复

Even those Party members who had worked as communist spies in the former government were deemed traitors and killed; let alone those generals who had changed sides from Chiang Kai-shek’s government to the Communist Party. They were also killed. In some people’s opinion, those generals, if they saw no hope of winning the day, should have gone abroad to live a free, safe life, not change sides to the Communist Party to be killed later. They should have known that the Communist Party had killed their own comrades even while they were still at YanAn. Those comrades believed in communism and went there to help wage the revolution. They could never dream that they would die in the hands of their own comrades in the name of revolution. Talk about betrayal.
Then there was the “Revolt of Restitution Party.” It involved over 1,300 persons, including 80 Communist Party members, in PuEr Town in Yunnan Province. PuEr is famous for its PuEr tea. Even the town’s party secretary and the deputy director-general of the police station were included. The first party secretary of the province said that he did not believe it. The party organization itself could not get so many members in such a short time—how could a reactionary organization achieve it? Then it was found that the case was made up. No evidence at all, except for one sign calling for revolt, which was drawn by a primary school teacher under threat. So the ridiculous case was dismissed.
In January of 1954, Xu Zirong, the vice minister of the police department, reported the statistics. In this movement, over 2,620,000 people were apprehended, “over 712,000 were executed, over 1,290,000 were imprisoned, and over 1,200,000 were placed under police control. Over 380,000 were released because their crimes were not serious.” If 712,000 were executed, the ratio was 0.124% as the population at that time was 500 million.
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文章时间: 2020-2-19 周三, 下午9:51    标题: 引用回复

The Suppression of Bandits

There were two types of bandits operating at this time. One was the kind who had already been bandits during the civil war owing to the chaotic situation. Many of them were common people who had had no other way to survive. The other were former soldiers of the National Army who had escaped from the People’s Liberation Army to dwell in the mountains. They acted as guerrilla warriors for the National Party, but were deemed bandits by the Liberation Army. Most of those bandits hid in the mountainous southwestern regions, but some lived in towns.

Bandits in Western Hunan

When most of Hunan province fell to the Communists, some of those men still loyal to the National Army settled in Western Hunan and formed three groups called the Anti-Communist Army, over 100,000 in all. From October 14 to 16, 1949, the 47th Liberation army besieged Dayong and annihilated their 122nd army (4,333 men) and incorporated 12,000 into the Liberation army. This battle frightened other bandits. Some of them decided they’d better go ahead and join the Liberation Army. But when the Liberation Army marched towards the southwest, they no longer wanted to surrender. On the contrary, in mid-December, they went to take back Dayong. Some of these bandits attacked a squad of the Liberation Army and killed some local armed personnel and pillaged 20 trucks belonging to the army.
To deal with the deteriorating situation, the 47th Liberation Army returned to the Western Hunan province and occupied 8 towns. The bandits escaped to some caves in the mountain. The Liberation Army found the family members of the bandits and made them go into the mountains to ask their husbands to come down and surrender. Finally the Liberation Army attacked the caves and eliminated the rest of the bandits in October.
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文章时间: 2020-2-21 周五, 下午10:06    标题: 引用回复

Bandits in the southwestern provinces

There were 148 groups of bandits in Yunnan province, 541 groups in Guizhou province, and 300 groups in Sichuan province. The big groups had a few thousand men. In February 1950, the bandits in all those areas grew from 400,000 to 500,000.
To annihilate them, the Communist Party sent the 3rd corps, the 4th corps, the 5th corps, and the 18th corps, plus the 7th army to separately attack the bandits in different districts. The attacks began in March 1950. During one month, the Liberation Army wiped out several groups of bandits numbering 23,000 in southern Sichuan province. By the end of July, 950,000 were eliminated in the eastern Sichuan province. After September, the Liberation Army in the eastern Sichuan province maneuvered to the region in the northeastern Guizhou province and annihilated another 320,000 bandits there. By the end of 1950, over 193,000 bandits were eliminated in the eastern Sichuan province, over 293,000 in the southern Sichuan province, over 83,000 in the western Sichuan province, and over 80,000 in the northern Sichuan province. It was reported that by 1953, more than 1,160,000 bandits in the northwestern provinces were wiped out, and over 700 cannons and over 600,000 firearms of all kinds were captured. During the whole process, the bandits assassinated 157 Liberation Army men and local cadres, spread poison 223 times, and set 316 fires. In 1952, the bandits received 10 airdrops including 13 radio sets, and 14 trained spies were sent from Taiwan and landed in those areas.

Bandits in the western Guangxi province

The bandits gathered more than 90,000 men, spreading over 97 towns out of 102 towns in western Guangxi. They killed more than 500 cadres, took away more than 28,000,000 catties of grain (17 tons) and more than 260,000 livestock. They hid in Dayao Mountain. The Liberation Army gathered 14 regiments plus militiamen from 18 towns, and blockaded all the waterways and roads to outside. The bandits tried to break through and escaped more than 40 times, but in the end it all failed. On the 8th of January, 1951, the Liberation Army started into the Dayao Mountain and wiped out more than 400 men in mountain villages. But the bandits were spread throughout the mountains, and so on the 2nd of February, the Communist Party gathered 13 battalions to go village by village and cave by cave searching for them. This campaign went on for 50 days and no more bandits were left in that area. The ringleaders were all executed.
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文章时间: 2020-2-23 周日, 下午9:41    标题: 引用回复

A special case

A weird thing happened one evening in 1950. Near Wulong Town in the southeastern Sichuan province, there was a restaurant called Danxin Restaurant which was famous for steamed buns stuffed with ground meat. But what kind of meat it was, no one knew. Someone suspected that it was the human flesh. In the olden days, there were always stories about steamed buns stuffed with human flesh sold in “black inns.” This small restaurant was a meeting place for bandits in this area. The owner of the restaurant was an old man with a fake hunchback: the real owner had a hunchback, but he had murdered him. He took over the restaurant and brought in two of his men, disguised as waiters.
On the 21st of October, ten Liberation Army soldiers passed the restaurant. They were on their way back from the mountain fighting bandits. As they were tired and hungry, they went into the restaurant. They were served steamed buns. A young soldier observed that the meat stuffing didn’t taste like pork, or mutton or beef. So he asked the owner what meat it was. The owner turned to leave without answering the question. Soon the soldiers were drugged, lying on the floor, and were dragged to the basement.
At daybreak on October 23, another five liberation soldiers came into the restaurant and were also served the steamed buns. Soon they all lay on the floor and were put into the basement. Next, more than 100 soldiers came, but this time they entered the restaurant without asking for any food. They had learned that this restaurant was a hideout and meeting place for bandits and had come to arrest those working here. The basement was found and 5 newcomers were still lying on the ground; two of the former ten soldiers were still alive. The other eight soldiers had been killed. One of the two was the squad leader and he told the story. He went on to live his life; but the other, a younger soldier, went mad and was put into an asylum. He died in March of 1959.
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文章时间: 2020-2-24 周一, 下午10:24    标题: 引用回复

How CPC (Communist Party of China) treats Tibet
 
I. Previous relationship between Tibet and China
The relationship between Tibet and China began the earliest in Tang Dynasty (618—907 AD). In the year of 640 AD, when the famous emperor Tang Taizong (01/28/598—07/10/649) was on the throne (626—649), Srongtsen Gampo, the sovereign of Tibet at the time, dispatched his premier to the capital of Tang Dynasty, bringing 5,000 taels of gold and many kinds of other treasures as gift and asked for the hand of a princess. The Tang emperor was pleased and granted the request of marriage. A legend had it that chieftains of other minorities close to the territory of Tang Dynasty also desired to marry the princess. The emperor wanted to test the wisdom of all the emissaries to decide whom he should choose as his foreign son-in-law, and so gave them a riddle to see who could solve it. He gave them a thin silk thread and a piece of jade with a zigzag hole in the middle, not straight through. Whoever could get the thread through the hole, his sovereign could marry the princess. No one could do it except the premier from Tibet. He got an ant and tied the thread on the ant. He blew his breath at the ant and it went through the winding hole carrying the thread through. Therefore, Princess Wencheng (625—680) was sent to Tibet and married the Tibetan sovereign. The princess brought with her the Chinese culture, the silkworm, seeds of grains, herb medicine and medical equipments, etc. The Tibetan sovereign built the Potala Palace in Lhasa for her, in imitation of the style of Tang palace. In the year of 740 AD, another princess of Tang Dynasty married the great grandson of Srongtsen Gampo. At that time, Tibet was an independent nation and did not belong to China. It was at most deemed a subordinative state to Tang Dynasty, but only in name, as they had marital relationship. Certainly not part of China.
At the beginning of the Qing Dynasty (1636—1912), Qing army had once conquered Tibet. However, Tibetans were still free to keep their culture and religion. But with the fall of the Qing Dynasty, Tibet declared its independence in 1913, which was recognized internationally at the time. So Tibet should be deemed an independent state. When the national government was established, Chiang Kai-shek had sent twice the envoy, but he did not take any military means to put Tibet under his rule.
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文章时间: 2020-2-26 周三, 下午9:26    标题: 引用回复

II. CPC (Communist Party of China) wants to change Tibet to their liking

On the 6th of October, 1950, the communist army defeated the Tibetan army, which had to surrender. So under the order of communist government, Tibet had to send a delegation to Beijing. On the 23rd of May, 1951, the communist government forced Tibet to sign the “Seventeen Point Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet.” (The Communist Party of China always uses ridiculous words to cover up the facts. Their so-called “Liberation” is the equivalent to vanquishing and rule by force. How can it be peaceful? Mao's famous quotation is “Political power comes out of gun.”) In the agreement, the Communist Party of China promised autonomy in Tibet, and freedom of religion, but when the communist army entered Tibet, they went back on their promise and never gave Tibet autonomy, and interfered with their belief, just like they had promised Chinese people a united government, democracy and freedom of speech, which are still written in their constitution, but when they seized power, they broke the promise and exercised one-party tyranny. That is the basic problem why the Tibetan people are opposing the communist party, for their breaking their promise. Their promise is not worth even a farthing. The believer in their promise is always found to be disappointed. In 1959 when Mao was pushing his reform all over the country, he wanted to have reform of some kind in Tibet, too. The communist party never wants to know what people really think and really need. They just force their ideas on people. If people refuse to take their ideas, they just exercise oppression or even slaughter. That was why from the 10th day to the 20th day of March, 1959, 100,000 Tibetans followed Dalai Lama over Mt. Himalaya and escaped to the north of India. Then the communist party began to persecute the Tibetans.
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文章时间: 2020-2-28 周五, 下午10:23    标题: 引用回复

Why did Dalai Lama want to escape from Tibet to India? The event of Lhasa happened like this. In the morning of the 10th of March, 1959, people of Lhasa thronged outside Norbulingka summer palace, where Dalai Lama lived. Their purpose was to prevent Dalai Lama from going to the camp auditorium of the communist army to watch some performance. Why did they want to do this? The situation at that time in Tibet told the reason. The Tibetans were really angry with the communist army who came to occupy their land and didn't give them autonomy. CPC set up their puppet government called the “Preparatory Committee for the Tibet Autonomous Region” to rule over Tibet. So Tibetans vented their dissatisfaction by preventing their leader from going to mix with the communist army. People who surrounded Norbulingka shouted, “Chinese, get out of Tibet.” Though Dalai Lama declared that he wouldn't go in hopes that people would disperse. But they still gathered there without intention to leave whatsoever.
When the army leaders reported to the Central Party committee, CPC concluded that the reactionaries in Tibet wanted to kidnap Dalai Lama. Therefore, on the night of the 11th of March, CPC instructed the army leaders in Tibet to prepare for the military action. On the 12th of March, Mao instructed his army leaders “to induce the enemy to attack.” Why? Because the army could “counterattack” on the pretense that the enemy attacked first. It meant that CPC and Mao had already made the decision for killing, not having a peace talk with Tibetans to iron the differences. This is the rule of CPC to deal with people under their control, just like in the event of TianAnMen Square on the 4th of June, 1989, Deng Xiaoping had already decided for the killing of the students. No matter how Zhao Ziyang made efforts to have talks with students.
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文章时间: 2020-3-01 周日, 下午10:04    标题: 引用回复

Actually in 1950, Dalai Lama decided to cooperate with the communist government, regardless of the advice of his brother in India then to leave Tibet as soon as possible. However, after his cooperation with CPC for five years, he was so disappointed in CPC as Tibetans grew angrier and angrier at the communist government since the government forced land reform in the region Tibetans lived. The resistance of the Tibetan people was already on the swing. So Dalai Lama was now between the devil and the deep sea. He didn't want to support his people for armed riot, not could he send his troops to kill his own people. So his last decision was to escape to India. At first he had still hesitated, but the explosion of two Mortar shells from the communist army very close to his residence expedited his escape. The event ended with the communist army killing the Tibetans in protestation.
How to maintain a peaceful relationship with minorities, there was much experience and examples in the history of China. Even the feudal rulers, that is, emperors, knew that if they wanted a peaceful relationship with minorities, they must win their hearts, not just conquer them physically. If they conquered them by force, they would not obey peacefully. The leaders of the communist party, especially Mao, who had read a lot of history books, should know the principle. But in reality, those leaders, including Mao himself, are the believers of force and violence. Whenever anything happens, they like to use strong angry words for threatening. They never know lenience. That's why people all over the world often criticize them just in hopes that they can change their attitudes to listen reasonably to others and act to the common standards of the world.
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文章时间: 2020-3-02 周一, 下午9:58    标题: 引用回复

Chapter 8. The Land Reform Movement and Prostitution Reform

The Land Reform in the Countryside

As early as 1946, the Communist Party had carried out some reform policies in the districts under their control. On October 10, 1947, they issued new land laws to distribute the arable land to those who actually tilled it. They expropriated the landowners and gave the land to the peasants, thus winning much gratitude and support from the rural populace. This support took two forms: grain and army recruits. Since most of the population in China was in the countryside, when the forces of the National Party diminished, the Communist Party gained reinforcements by recruiting young peasants.
From winter of 1950 to spring of 1953, the land reform movement began in full swing in all the newly controlled provinces. They divided the arable land belonging to landowners among peasants. On June 30, 1950, the central people’s government issued the “Land Reform Law of the People’s Republic of China.”
Many Party cadres formed work teams and went to the countryside to instruct peasants on how to proceed. The landowners were pulled out of their residences and taken to an open space. They were forced to kneel for long periods on the hard ground. Those peasants who hated their landowners went forward to slap their faces, and they slapped hard. But the humiliation and sense of injustice were worse than the physical pain. Many of the landowners were shot to death. Their families were deprived of their property, leaving them only with the bare necessities of life. Peasants moved into the landowners’ houses.
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文章时间: 2020-3-04 周三, 下午10:08    标题: 引用回复

Prostitution Reform in Cities

Prostitution was an old business in almost every nation in the world. Prostitution in China had a history of 3,000 years in written records, and it was generally practiced in cities. Most prostitutes were forced to be in this business; some had even been kidnapped and sold to the whorehouse. Occasionally little girls were sold to the whorehouse by poor parents on the verge of starvation. The parents reasoned that at least their daughter would not starve to death that way. Therefore, girls who were prostitutes were not considered blameworthy for their own sake. (In the present China, the importance of money has increased and it is true that most who become prostitutes do it of their own accord. There are cafes and clubs where a man can pay a young and pretty girl to keep him company while sipping tea, coffee or other drinks, or to dance, and he can invite the girl for more. These girls were called ‘Miss.’ So nowadays, if anyone calls a girl ‘Miss,’ she will find it insulting.)
At the beginning of the People’s Republic of China, the Communist Party wanted to end the prostitution business once for all. So every local government closed all the whorehouses in their cities, starting with Beijing. The mayor simply declared, at 5 o’clock in the afternoon on the 21st of November in 1949, a ban on the prostitution business and closed all the whorehouses. The chief of the main police station in Beijing gave orders to gather 2,400 cadres and policemen to form 27 groups. At 8:00PM, every group went to the designated district, and 224 whorehouses were closed and 1,316 prostitutes were penned up in penitentiaries for half a year. After “re-education” and healing and a skills-training process, about 400 of them married workers and shop assistants to start their new life. Around 200 of them married peasants in the suburbs of Beijing. Another 200 became workers themselves in textile factories. It is said that 379 returned to their respective homes, while 62 were assigned jobs in theaters or hospitals.
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文章时间: 2020-3-06 周五, 下午9:54    标题: 引用回复

On November 23, Shanghai followed suit and began to close all the whorehouses. In Shanghai 7,400 prostitutes were sent to penitentiaries and turned over a new leaf. During 1951 and 1952, all other cities did the same and prostitution was cleared up in China. As there were so many women who had to build a new life, some of them were sent to join the so-called construction army in the very remote northwest, the Xinjiang Autonomous Region. In April of 1955, 920 girls started from Shanghai, in new green uniforms, and rode a train to barracks there.
Besides the prostitution problem, another problem in the cities was the great number of beggars, homeless and thieves. They were also rounded up by the local police and put in penitentiaries. Then after skills-training, they got jobs, too. During these years, passengers in trams and buses had no fear of pickpockets. Even housewives, if any needed to work to earn money, could be assigned jobs in some kind of factory or low-paying “productive group.” Jobs in the productive groups including sealing envelopes, making match boxes, or knitting work, etc. Jobs were not searched out and applied for, but allotted by the local government.
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文章时间: 2020-3-08 周日, 下午9:53    标题: 引用回复

Chapter 9. The Korean War

North Korea Invaded South Korea

A legend about Korea and China goes back to the end of the Shang Dynasty (1765–1122 BC). The last king of that dynasty was a tyrant and often killed innocent people, even his courtiers. When he was overthrown by the Zhou Dynasty (1121—476 BC), he burned himself to death. His brother Jizi escaped to Korea with his followers, bringing Chinese culture, etiquette and government systems there. The natives supported him to be the first king of Korea. It was called Jizi Korea, which lasted from 1122 BC to 194 BC.
The Korean War, or Korean Conflict, began on June 25, 1950, when the North Korean army marched across the line of demarcation, the 38th parallel, and suddenly attacked the 17th Regiment of the South Korean army without any warning. The war ended on July 27, 1953, when the cease-fire agreement was signed.
The Soviet Union was behind North Korea in waging the war, helped by China. Before the war, the leader of North Korea asked China to send over three divisions composed entirely of Koreans. These became the 4th field army under Lin Biao. The three divisions doubled the military forces of North Korea. Then North Korea concentrated great numbers of tanks and troops to press the South Korean army southward. Meanwhile North Korean troops made an amphibious landing at Kangnung on the east coast right on the south side of the 38th parallel. Then North Korean fighter aircrafts attacked Seoul and Kimpo Airfield, destroying a US Air Force C-54 on the ground on Kimpo Airfield. Therefore, John Muccio, the US Ambassador to South Korea, conveyed to US President Truman the request of South Korean government for air assistance and ammunition.
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文章时间: 2020-3-09 周一, 下午9:10    标题: 引用回复

The United Nations Security Council held an emergency meeting, which the representative of the Soviet Union did not attend. The United Nations Security Council called in unison for an immediate cease-fire and withdrawal of the North Korean army to the north of the 38th parallel and authorized the United Nations members to aid South Korea. The United Nations Security Council requested that the US government establish a United Nations Command under an American officer. General MacArthur was appointed as commander of the United Nations army, and he ordered the US Air Force to attack the North Korean units in the south of the 38th parallel.
The US government began the air evacuation of its citizens from South Korea. The next day, the North Korean army occupied Chunchon, Pochon, and Tongduchon in South Korea. So the US 7th fleet sailed north from the Philippines. The US Air Force started to attack the North Korean army, but failed to prevent it from advancing. Soon the North Korean army captured Seoul, the capital of South Korea, overran the port of Inchon, seized the airfield at Kimpo, and threatened the city of Suwon. Then President Truman ordered some units of US navy to approach the Korean peninsula for the purpose of blockading the North Korea army.
At the end of July, as the North Korean troops kept advancing, the United Nations forces had to retreat to a new defensive line along the Naktong River. Then the United States troops launched their first ground offensive, marching from Masan westward toward Chinju to stabilize the southwestern end of the Pusan line. A few days later, US troops, with the aid of air strikes, drove the North Korean army at the Yongsan bridgehead back across the Naktong River.
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