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[原创] Two Republics in China
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文章时间: 2020-4-27 周一, 下午9:05    标题: 引用回复

By then, the total goal for iron and steel production had been set at 10.7 million tons. An official Party decision to that effect was taken on the 17th of August, 1958. To achieve that goal, they wanted the whole nation to engage in the making of iron and steel. They ordered people to build old-styled open-pit ovens, like in the kitchens of primitive old houses. In all factories other than steel plants, a couple of ovens were set up to make steel on the side. As to where to get the raw materials, they commanded people to take down all the steel doors, iron bars on windows, and steel fences, and to sell all their household goods made of iron and steel, such as tools and kitchen utensils. If people could have cut their food with wooden knives, they would have ordered them to give up their steel knives. This of course reduced production of other necessities and disrupted the supply chain for other goods. As a result of all these efforts, it was declared in December 1958 that the total output of iron and steel was 11,080,000 tons, task victoriously completed. But more than 3 million tons of the steel and 4,160,000 tons of the iron were no good, all garbage. A complete waste of money and materials and labor force. The loss was estimated at about 20 billion yuan in Chinese currency.
Once they had melted the raw material, how did they make the “steel bricks? Here is a description. Whatever scraps of iron or steel were on hand would be thrown in the oven until they melted a little, just enough to stick together. Then the piece was taken out and put on an iron anvil. One man tightly held the half-softened piece on the anvil using long-handled tongs, and two other men hit it in turn with big hammers, while the person holding the piece turned it around, over and over, until it began to take on the shape of a brick. The two men hit the piece by turns, as is often done in hand-forging, as the piece cools quickly and one man can strike while the other is raising his hammer again. As soon as the shape was fixed, the job was deemed finished. This “steel brick” was put aside and they would go to work on the next one. Three men’s efforts were tied up working at each oven. That was how the steel bricks were made.
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文章时间: 2020-4-29 周三, 下午8:55    标题: 引用回复

Chapter 17. The Meeting On Mt. Lu and Peng’s Letter

Background Information

In 1958 when Khrushchev visited Beijing, he derided China’s Great Leap Forward as a mania of the petty bourgeoisie. During the period of May–June in 1959, when Khrushchev officially visited Albania, he met Peng Dehuai, who let Khrushchev read a memorandum recording some severe criticisms of the Great Leap Forward and the people’s commune. On July 17, Khrushchev made a speech in Poland criticizing the Great Leap Forward and the people’s commune. The next day, the newspapers in the Soviet Union and Poland repeated the same criticisms. That set the international background.
Data from the National Statistics Bureau showed that China’s total output in 1958 was valued at 130.7 billion yuan, 21.3% more than in 1957; the total industrial value was 108.3 billion yuan, 54.8% more than in 1957; and the total agricultural value was 56.6 billion yuan, 2.4% more than in 1957. The total quantity of grain in 1958 was 200 million tons, 2.54% more than in 1957. Therefore, Mao thought that the policies of the Great Leap Forward and the people’s commune were correct. So he refused to accept any criticism, though he admitted that there had been some shortcomings in carrying out the policy, like forcing people to do things against their will, exaggerating, commanding blindly, and allowing cadres to arrogate special rights over people.

The Meeting On Mt. Lu
In July, 1959, the Party held a conference on Mt. Lu, on which Mao owned that there were some demerits in the Great Leap Forward and the people’s commune movements, but the Party should yet accelerate the completion of all the tasks of the Great Leap Forward. At first the conference was going peacefully. The representatives toured the mountain in the day and held a dance or had a walk in the evening, besides attending meetings. The purpose of this conference was at first just to let other leaders know these demerits and help to correct them. The conference lasted for nearly a month and all the representatives were happy as it drew to an end. Just then an apple of discord dropped on the table. Peng Dehuai handed in his “Ten Thousand Words Letter” to Mao.
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文章时间: 2020-5-01 周五, 下午8:52    标题: 引用回复

Peng’s Ten-Thousand Word Letter

Peng Dehuai was the vice chairman of the central military committee of the CPC, the minister of National Defense, and a vice Premier of the state council. Although the administration was not known for inviting input from anyone, he finally decided that he had quite a lot to say. What did Peng say in his “Ten-Thousand Word Letter”? He just pointed out all the mistakes made so far, with an in-depth analysis. In 1959, he said the Party should slow down the speed of development and not keep on with the Great Leap Forward, which had thrown the economy off balance and created new difficulties. He also sharply pointed out that the exaggerated statistics and the passing of false information to party leaders were just the surface of the problem, the deeper cause being the lack of openness to advice and other opinions (an aspect of democracy) and personality worship, which hit home to Mao’s leadership. On July 17, coincidently on the same day as Khrushchev delivered his criticism in Poland, Zhou Xiaozhou, the first party secretary of Hunan province, gave a talk that supported Peng. On July 20, Zhang Wentian, a vice minister in the foreign affairs ministry, supported Peng, too.
Mao refused to listen to Peng, and Peng had an argument with Mao. Mao criticized Peng severely, and called Peng and his supporters an “Anti-Party Clique.” They were removed from their official positions and put in prison. But the people of China respected them for their courage in speaking out. During the anti-rightist movement over 10,000 party members were criticized and were ill treated. All those cases were redressed in 1962, except Peng. It is thought that Peng’s main offense was his failure to protect Mao’s eldest son adequately during the Korean War.
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文章时间: 2020-5-03 周日, 下午9:17    标题: 引用回复

A Great Leap Backward into Famine

Largely as a result of the foregoing policies, a serious famine hit China from 1959 to 1961. Some reports suggest that at least 30 million people died from hunger. The high estimation was more than 60 million. As the Communist Party kept such statistics a national secret, no one can be sure. If calculated at 37,558,000 (from official statistics recently revealed), the number is 7.65 million greater than the total number of deaths from starvation in all the history of China, almost equivalent to the casualties in the Second World War, which was between 30–40 million.
The Great Leap Forward and the steel making spree damaged the agricultural sector deeply. In 1960, the grain output fell to 158,000 tons, 26% less than in 1957 before the Great Leap Forward. In Sichuan province, renowned for its plentiful grain production, the output decreased year by year from 1959 to 1961. In 1961, it was even less than in 1949. In that province alone, 10 million people starved to death. Some cadres wrote a letter to the Central Committee of the CPC to tell the truth, but they were decided to be an anti-party clique.
Many in the countryside ate grass and tree bark. The Party denied that there was a famine, but called it a natural catastrophe. It really did not matter what they called it. Later, however, Liu Shaoqi, the chairman of the People’s Republic of China, confessed that the calamity was “seven tenths human error and three tenths a natural catastrophe.”
Even during the famine years, the Party exported grain in order to earn foreign currency. And in 1959, when people were starving in the streets, 4,157,500 tons of grain were exported to the Soviet Union and other socialist nations in Eastern Europe in exchange for help to develop the military industry. Given the constant menace from the West, as the Cold War raged on, one could say that there was some strategic basis for this deadly trade-off. But on top of that, in April 1960, they gave 10,000 tons of rice to Guinea, and 15,000 tons of wheat to Albania. Was that just a public relations ploy to deny the true state of affairs?
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文章时间: 2020-5-04 周一, 下午9:18    标题: 引用回复

Chapter 18 What is great cultural revolution?
 
I. Background of so-called cultural revolution

During the so-called natural calamity, as three hundred millions of people were starved to death, the national economy got worse and worse. Therefore, Mao was forced to recede to the background on the political power stage, and Liu Shaoqi stepped into the foreground, helped by Deng, the secretary general of the central committee of the communist Party. Of course, such a very ambitious person as Mao would never, of his own accord, give up the political power he had enjoyed so far and now stand backstage watching others perform on the political stage right under his nose. No, he would never allow it. This was the reason of the occurrence of the cultural revolution he was scheming in his great mind.
In January, 1962, at a meeting of 7,000 people, Mao criticized himself for the mistakes he had committed, having made a mess of the national economy. Liu said then that it was three-tenth natural disaster and seven-tenth human error. But in August of the same year, on the meeting at Beidai River, Mao insisted in his theory of class fight, which was the main danger of the present society as he defined it. Mao thought that there was still the possibility of revisionism taking the upper hand, which meant the revival of capitalism according to his theory. In the later development of the events, one could see that Mao laid a time bomb in theory to turn the table for his benefits. This was his basic theory to wage the cultural revolution in future. Liu and Deng could never see the red lights—the approaching danger. Both were no equal rivals to Mao.
The cultural revolution was certainly unprecedented in the history of China, also in the history of the world. If Mao had his IQ tested, it should be very high. If his scheme for the movement went a bit amiss, the result would be different. He might never retrieve his power, or the whole country might be in civil war. His scheme was accurate in his arrangement, though he never cared how many people would die in the cultural revolution. He was a person cruel at heart. When his third wife, Yang Kaihui, had been arrested by Chiang Kai-shek's government and killed later, he didn't do anything to rescue her, but married another woman. He sent his son to the Korean War, who died there.
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文章时间: 2020-5-06 周三, 下午8:54    标题: 引用回复

In February, 1963, the central committee of CPC decided on another political movement, proposed by Mao, imaginably. This was, indeed, Mao's strategy to retrieve his lost power. No one could see through him at the time. Liu, the chairman of the nation then, was of course the leader of the movement. As usual, Liu sent out work teams to the countryside for the movement. Liu thought that the target of this movement was still the common people as the previous movements did. The work teams made a mess there as they really had no idea whom they should target.
In December, 1964, at a meeting of the central committee of CPC, Mao said that it was wrong to aim at the common people. The target (this time) should be the cadres. Of course, Mao meant more than that. No one could understand at the time what he really pointed at. So Liu made self-criticism. A trap Mao set for him to fall in. Then in January, 1965, the central committee agreed with Mao that the target of this movement should be those in power within the Party, who were persisting in going the capitalist road. At that time, no one could guess who were those targeted in power and who were those insisting in going the capitalist road. But Mao had a certain goal in his mind. Another theoretical trap. It was based on this theory that Mao was the right person going the socialist road, and any other persons who held different opinions from Mao should be those going on the capitalist road. The worst thing was that all other leaders of CPC agreed to this theory, making Mao always standing on the summit of correctness. Mao could never be wrong theoretically. It was called the fight between the two roads: the socialist road and the capitalist road. As Mao declared himself and was also accepted as the representative of going the socialist road, Liu was, of course, deemed the representative of going the capitalist road. Going on capitalist road was wrong, according to Mao's theory, which was accepted by others. Liu already lost there. His tragic end was sealed even before the beginning of the cultural revolution since others were all got confused by Mao's theory and did not know how to contradict him.
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文章时间: 2020-5-08 周五, 下午8:45    标题: 引用回复

However, Mao still let Liu lead this movement, as a Chinese saying goes, “If you want to get, you must give first.” Mao had read a lot of Chinese history books and was versed in all the stratagems in power redemption. Liu, as usual, sent out work teams again. Statistics showed that in the region of Changde Town, in HuNan province, 331 persons were criticized, among whom 21 were beaten, 65 bound hand and foot, 3 hung up, and 42 forced to kneel on the ground. In a suburb of Beijing, 40 people committed suicide. Only this time, the target was the lowest cadres in the countryside, not common people any more as Mao had planned to use common people as his chessmen. Pawns are powerful when getting in a certain position. The red guards were his chessmen too.
Meantime, Mao traveled all over the country. He talked secretly with some important generals and wanted to get their support. He always believed in gun. If he could get those holding the gun to support him, he could go on with his plan. Otherwise, he would stay backstage for the rest of his life. From the Chinese history, a conclusion is true: the wise can always gain the upper hand of the fool. Mao, the wise. Liu, the fool. Among all the generals, two of them were the most important ones, Lin Biao, minister of defense ministry then, and Xu Shiyou, commander of the army covering the area of Nanking and Shanghai. With their support, Mao was sure of his final victory. However, the procedures of the process must be taken very carefully. He could not have a step amiss.
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文章时间: 2020-5-10 周日, 下午8:52    标题: 引用回复

II. The cultural revolution did begin in the cultural field
 
1) Mao's wife, Jiang Qing, made public appearance

At that time, most of those in power in local governments were supporters of Liu and Deng. How to seize power from them was a problem. If most of the local government leaders supported Mao, he had no need to start the cultural revolution. Since the situation was otherwise, Mao had to get his ball rolling. However, Mao plotted wisely and nicely. Mao liked to control consensus first so that he could say anything using public opinion against his political enemies. So he commenced his plot in that field.
Mao wanted his wife, Jiang Qing, to help him. Mao married Jiang Qing while he still had his legal wife, He Zizhen, sister of Marshal He Long. At that time Mao's legal wife was in the Soviet Union for the treatment of presumed mental disease. Mao and Jiang held a banquet in a big cave in YanAn. It was the twenty-first of December, 1938. Jiang was twenty-four years old then, twenty-one years younger than Mao. The original name of Jiang Qing had been called Li Yunhe, and her stage name was Lanping. She changed her name to Jiang Qing when she went to YanAn. She had been married before to Tanner. A story went at that time about three couples who had their simple wedding ceremony held under the moonlight before the Liuhe Pagoda, in Hangzhou. The three couples were Jiang Qing and Tanner, Ye Luqian and Zhao Dan, Du Xiaojuan and Gu Eryi. All were ★违反论坛条例!★ stars. The witness to their marriage was Shen Junru, a man of letters. After their wedding, Jiang Qing always quarreled with Tanner. Their bad relationship developed and once Tanner wanted to kill himself by drink poison. It happened only sixty days after their marriage. In 1937, Jiang Qing lived together with Zhang Ming, the director of the ★违反论坛条例!★. Then she put a notice on the newspapers to declare that she had separated with Tanner. After the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War, Jiang Qing went to YanAn. Later Tanner went to Paris, France and married Anna in 1952. He died in 1988 there. Later some of her former fellow ★违反论坛条例!★ stars explained that why Jiang (meaning River) Qing (meaning clear) wanted to change her name to the present one was because her dirty ★违反论坛条例!★ history with so many men could only be washed clear in river water.
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文章时间: 2020-5-11 周一, 下午9:40    标题: 引用回复

Jiang Qing had been also an actress of Beijing opera before she had gone to YanAn and married Mao. She originally lived in Shandong Province. There she was enrolled in Shandong Beijing Opera Institute. Later when she took part in some activities against Japan, she caught the attention of the local government and had to escape secretly to Shanghai. She joined the Left-Wing Drama Union, acting in some plays for revolution. It was said that when she acted in dramas she was okay, but when she was in movies, she was no good. When she was the wife of Mao, she was ashamed of her history as a star and did not want people aware of it, particularly talking of it. In the cultural revolution, most of the stars who had worked with Jiang Qing were put into prison as Jiang Qing feared that they would spread her former history as a third class ★违反论坛条例!★ star, which, in her opinion, would make her lose face. Luckily for Tanner, he lived in France at that time. Anyone who mentioned or even hinted at it would be put in prison, too. That was why many people, besides famous actors and actresses who had worked with her before, were persecuted during the movement and many of them died in prison.
As Jiang Qing had learned to sing Beijing opera, she began in the area of Beijing opera reform, which happened between 1964 and 1966, after she published an article “Talk on Revolution of Beijing Opera.” It gave her a bridge over which she could take part in the political movements later. When she had married Mao, CPC had made a decision that she had been forbidden to be involved in politics. The opera reform only involved culture. That's why, maybe, the revolution called cultural revolution, an actual political revolution in disguise. So none in CPC had any objection. Generally Beijing opera was about old stories. The reform made it into modern stories. The ones known in China were “Red Lantern”, etc. Ballet was reformed, too. The famous ones were the “Red Detachment of Women” and the “White-haired Girl”.
On the 10th day of November, 1965, Mao let his wife, Jiang Qing, instruct Yao Wenyuan in Shanghai to write an article criticizing the new historical play “Dismissal of Hairui from Office”. The article was published in Wenhui Daily on the 30th day of November, 1965. It was because nothing could appear in newspapers in Beijing at the time. All officials there were Liu's men. The article said that the play wanted to redress the case of Peng Dehuai, because Hairui was the defense minister in Ming Dynasty equivalent to Peng before his dismissal. This play was written by Wu Han, who was a vice mayor of Beijing at the time. He became the first official Mao wanted to get rid of, which would be a breakthrough into Liu's circle.
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文章时间: 2020-5-13 周三, 下午8:59    标题: 引用回复

2) The so-called February coup d'etat

Mao wanted Yao's article to be published in all the newspapers in Beijing. But Peng Zhen, the mayor of Beijing then, thought that such an article was not suitable to come out in Beijing's newspapers, and so refused to do it. Besides, the writer of the play, Wu Han, was a vice mayor of Beijing. To support Wu Han, Peng Zhen organized a “five-person cultural revolution group”, approved by Liu, Deng and Zhou Enlai, the premier of the State Council, intending to limit the criticism within the culture, not into politics. And Peng Zhen wanted to protect Wu Han, too. He did not realize the plan of Mao. But Mao would not allow it. So he wanted to get rid of Peng as well. As a Chinese saying goes, if a man of power wants to accuse anyone of any crime, he can easily find a reason whatsoever for the person, no matter if the reason sounds right or ridiculous.
Yao's article connected the play with the dismissal of Peng Dehuai, which smelled of political attack. Mayor Peng thought the criticism of a play was in the field of culture, and should not connect it with a political event. On the 13th day of February, Mayor Peng summoned a meeting of the five-person group, and criticized Yao for his connection of his article with a political event, intending to limit the criticism within the scope of culture. All the attenders supported him except Kang Sheng, a secretary of the central secretariat of CPC, who insisted in the rightness of the article.
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文章时间: 2020-5-15 周五, 下午9:44    标题: 引用回复

Anyway, the five-person group drafted a report called “February Outline”, saying that any discussion in the field of culture must be based on facts, and respect facts, which meant the connection of the article with the dismissal of Peng Dehuai did not respect truth. On the 8th day of February, Mayor Peng, Kang Sheng and Lu Dingyi, the head of the propaganda department of CPC, went to see Mao and gave him the “February Outline.” Mao pointed out that the gist of the play was the “dismissal” and so had the connection with the dismissal of Peng Dehuai. Mao wanted to use this as a reason to rid of Wu Han, and further of Peng Zhen.
From the 17th day to the 20th day of March, at a meeting of the political bureau of CPC, Mao made a speech: Who controlling the newspapers, magazines and publishing presses is very important; those capitalist authorities in culture must be criticized; the magazine “Frontline” controlled by Wu Han and his supporters is anti-Party and anti-socialism; a cultural revolution must be waged in the areas of literature, history, philosophy, law, and economical theory; how much of Marxism-Leninism is in those areas? So the February Outline of the five-person group was also criticized. Mayor Peng and his supporters were all removed from office and were defined as an anti-Party clique.
It looked that Mayor Peng and his supporters only had different opinion from Mao. How could they plot a coup d'etat? On the 27th day of July, 1966, Kang Sheng said on a public meeting in Beijing Normal University that Peng Zhen planned to have coup d'etat because he had a battalion of soldiers in every university. The crowds believed him as he was a party leader. But that was not the truth. The fact was that in February, 1966, the central military committee decided to strengthen the local military forces and maneuvered a regiment into Beijing for training purpose. The regiment of soldiers was planned to lodge in some empty rooms of some universities. But afterwards, the soldiers found elsewhere to lodge and didn't sleep in any universities. However, the fact was distorted to become a crime of Peng Zhen and his supporters.
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文章时间: 2020-5-17 周日, 下午8:48    标题: 引用回复

III. Where did cultural revolution go next?
 
1) Lin Biao set up personal worship of Mao

On the 16th of May (5.16), 1966, on the meeting of the political bureau of the Party, a document, approved by Mao, was passed, known as “5.16 Notice”, which was officially deemed the actual beginning of the so-called Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, the official name. At the same time the “Central Cultural Revolution Group” was organized to replace the “five-person cultural revolution group”. On the 8th day of May, Lin Biao, the minister of the defense ministry at the time, said that Chairman Mao was a genius, every word he said was truth, nothing but truth, and a sentence from him was worth ten thousand sentences from others. This began the “Personal Worship” the nation over. Anyone said anything disrespectful to Mao, let alone against Mao, would be defined as a reactionary and put in prison. For that reason many innocent people became prisoners during the cultural revolution. Ridiculous stories were circulated. A person killed a cat and was jailed because the Chinese word for cat had the same pronunciation as Mao. The person killing a cat was deemed to have the intention to kill Mao. Someone accidentally threw a stone, which hit the picture of Mao hanging on the wall, and he was deemed a reactionary. A person walked in a park and felt tired. He saw a bench, which was dirty from the rain of last night. He put the newspaper he had just bought on the bench and sat on it. He was reported and arrested because there was a picture of Mao on the newspaper. It was disrespect of Mao to sit on his picture, even by mistake. The personal worship of Mao developed to such a degree in the cultural revolution.
Why should Lin Biao set up Mao as the object of the so-called “Personal Worship”? It must be another tactics of Mao. The fact was so clear that those supporting Mao were much fewer than those supporting Liu and Deng. Mao, through Lin Biao, set up himself as the object of “Personal Worship” like a god being worshiped so that no one dared to oppose him. He could be always at an advantageous point. Then the slogan of “Four Greats” about Mao appeared: Great Guide, Great Leader, Great Commander, Great Helmsman. Then Lin Biao, or someone else in his name, invented a style of dance, called Loyalty Dance. Generally the dancers held a card board with the word loyalty written on it.
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文章时间: 2020-5-18 周一, 下午9:00    标题: 引用回复

2) The red guards movement

On the 25th day of May, Nie, a woman Party leader in Beijing University, together with other six men, put up a so-called Big Word Paper, criticizing the Party committee of Beijing University and the municipal Party committee of Beijing City. At that time Mao was in Hangzhou. When he was reported about it, he praised it, calling it the first Marxist-Leninist Big Word Paper in the country. On the same day, an editorial appeared on the People Daily, calling upon ordinary people to join in the movement, to down all authorities.
On the 29th day, the first group of Red Guards was organized in the subsidiary middle school of Qinghua University. The chaos developed fast. Students in many middle schools and universities rose to oppose the leadership of the Party there. Quite a few university principals were criticized. Seeing this, Liu sent out work teams in an attempt to control the situation. The work teams made 10,211 students the rightists, and 2,591 teachers the reactionaries.
On the 18th day of July, Mao returned to Beijing. On the 24th, Mao held a meeting, criticizing Liu and Deng for sending out work teams. Liu confessed that he did not know how to lead the cultural revolution movement. Deng said that it was like an old revolutionary facing a new problem. That was where Mao set the snare to let them fall in. Naturally, Mao took over the leadership as Liu and Deng did not know what to do. Even if Liu and Deng had not sent out work teams and did something else, Mao could, at any rate, find faults with them easily. It always happened in the struggle for political power in the Chinese history. All the same, the result would be for Liu and Deng to be out of power. The goal of the cultural revolution. Mao's scheme. Now Mao was back in power. It looked as if Liu and Deng were not driven out of power, but as if they were willing to give up the power to Mao as they did not know how to wage the cultural revolution. A real wise move of Mao, so easily to take over the power.
Mao supported the Red Guards. On the 5th of August, Mao wrote a Big Word Paper, titled as “Gun Down Headquarters----my big word paper”. Mao meant that there was a “capitalist headquarters” within CPC, implying to Liu and Deng, who were already out of power. Then Lin Biao was made the vice chairman of CPC, a reward to him for his supporting Mao to get the power back from Liu and Deng.
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文章时间: 2020-5-20 周三, 下午8:04    标题: 引用回复

At the end of May, Red Guards developed on a large scale. On the 13th day of June, the Central Committee of CPC and the State Council issued a notification that the entrance examination for the university was postponed for half a year. On the 18th day, the editorial of the People Daily said that the cultural revolution must be thoroughly carried out and the education system must be thoroughly reformed. The entrance examination system must be stopped. Therefore, for more than ten years, no new students were enrolled in universities, and for many years, no classes for students in schools. Thus appeared a gap of education and knowledge between the old generation and the young generation. The young generation did not have enough education and enough knowledge. The Chinese culture in a general sense degenerated. Then what were the students doing? They were all taking part in the cultural revolution. Students in universities and middle schools formed red guards of their own. Primary school students stayed at home, being too young.
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文章时间: 2020-5-22 周五, 下午9:06    标题: 引用回复

The red guards began to travel all over the country to instigate riot. They did not need to buy tickets either on trains or buses. That was the Party's decision. All they needed was an armband with the words Red Guards on it. It was easy to make and get. So other people, who were not students, seized this chance to travel for free all over the nation for sightseeing.
The whole country got into chaos. That's what Mao wanted to retrieve power from so many Liu's local government supporters. So Mao wanted the red guards to “destroy four old things”, which were old thought, old culture, old tradition, and old custom. But it was not easy to define these. So everywhere the red guards went, they burned the old books published hundreds of years ago, the old paintings even by famous ancient painters, and broke curios and relics. They destroyed old wooden shop signs and replaced them with paper ones written in new names. They even proposed to change the name of Shanghai into “July-First City”, which Mao disapproved.
Why the red guards wanted to change Shanghai into July-First City was because the Party declared that the 1st day of July, 1921, was the birthday of the Chinese Communist Party in Shanghai. But data on Internet revealed that it was established in August, 1920, under the instruction of the Soviet Communist Party. In April, that year, the Communist International sent Grigori Voitinsky to China. In May, he found Chen Duxiu, forth-two then, to contact some revolutionary young men in other cities for the establishment of Chinese Communist Party, which was founded in August, 1920. Why the Chinese Communist Party wanted to change their birthday to the 1st day of July, 1921, was that it might have two reasons. One was that they wanted to cover the fact that the Communist International had a finger in it. The other was that CPC did have a meeting in Shanghai and Mao attended it so that they could say that Mao was one of the founders to make Mao look better. But the meeting was on the 23rd day, not on the 1st day. Anyway, the Chinese Communist Party did not even give a correct day for their own birthday. How can we believe the narrations in the Party's history written by themselves? (For details of the establishment and development of CPC, please read my other book titled Two Republics in China.)
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文章时间: 2020-5-24 周日, 下午9:28    标题: 引用回复

The red guards went to private houses and ransacked and destroyed or took away all the valuable personal belongings. They even beat people to death. Statistics showed that in one month from the 18th day of August, 1966, in Beijing only, houses of 114,000 families were ransacked, and 85,198 individuals were driven to where they came from in the countryside or other towns. From the 23rd day of August to the 8th day of September, in Shanghai, 84,222 families were openly robbed. And in Tianjin City, 12,000 families suffered the same disaster. Another statistics showed that during August and September, in Beijing only, the red guards got 103,000 taels of gold, equivalent to 5.7 tons, 345,200 taels of silver, 55,000,000 yuan Chinese paper currency, and 613,600 curios. In Shanghai, between the 23rd day of August and the 8th day of September, besides large quantity of gold, silver and gems, etc., they got 3,340,000 US dollars and other foreign currencies worth 3,300,000 Chinese currency, 2,400,000 yuan of silver coins and 3,700,000,000 yuan of Chinese currency. A Party document confessed that even before that, the red guards already got 1,180,000 taels of gold, equivalent to 65 tons. That was really the aim of “destroy four old things.” That's what Mao and CPC really wanted, in such a name, to rob people of their valuables. A broad daylight robbery! The robbed could not resist, nor even report to the police. The robbery was lawful, supported by CPC and Mao. That was also unprecedented in the robbery field of the world. What was the use of laws in such a country? Peng Zhen once said that the Party (supported by gun, of course) was above the law. Now all the valuables in possession of common people were taken. After that, they had nothing worth to be taken away by the Party. They were safe now, as poor as a lazy squirrel with nothing in store for winter. The pillaging action even affected some old workers who had something worth a little money saved through their hard work in the old time, before CPC came to reign.
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文章时间: 2020-5-25 周一, 下午9:07    标题: 引用回复

And many antiques were destroyed, worth billions. From the 9th day of November to the 7th day of December, 1966, during less than a month, more than 6,000 articles of curio, more than 2,700 volumes of ancient edition, more than 900 rolls of paintings and calligraphy by famous ancient people, and more than 1,000 stone tablets, were destroyed. Who should be responsible for all the loss? The red guards or Mao and CPC?
As to death rate during the red terrorism, the official statistics showed that only in Beijing, the capital city, 1,700 people were beaten to death. A massacre took place in Daxing Town outside Beijing and during three days, 325 persons were killed by cruel means, including some buried alive, like the massacre in Nanking by the Japanese army. Those who made suicide reached 200,000. In the whole period of the cultural revolution, the estimate of the death rate in the whole country was between 2 million and 7 million, one percent of the whole population in China at that time. Who should be responsible for it? The red guards or Mao and CPC?
In Shanghai, the red guards of Shanghai Museum went to all the collectors on their list to take all the curios to the museum, they said, for the sake of protecting them, or the red guards from Beijing might destroy them. Some collectors even called the museum, asking it to send their red guards to their homes and take their curios away. Fortune sometimes means misfortune.
Other things happened in Shanghai during the red guards movement. At first, their action was only limited in the streets, destroying old shop signs. When they saw some women wearing high-heeled or pointed shoes, they would force them to take off and they would cut through them with scissors they seemed always carrying with them. They called it capitalist life style, included in the four old things. Once some red guards saw a girl wearing trousers in jeans. They thought it was the capitalist life style and forced the girl to take it off, and the girl had to run home in underwear. They laughed after her.
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文章时间: 2020-5-27 周三, 下午8:02    标题: 引用回复

Then when they heard what their fellow red guards did in Beijing, they started to attack private houses, too. Mostly they went to big houses, generally belonging to the capitalists. Some stayed in one big house for months, eating their canned food and chocolate in store. Some embezzled gold and silver articles and diamond rings. Others took away the interesting novels for their own enjoyment. The stupid ones they were deemed. Some of the capitalists were forced to kneel on the ground and beaten or abused. Lots of red guards went to Canton and tried to break past the border sentinels to rush into Hongkong. They declared that they wanted to make revolution there, but were stopped by the Chinese army. The red guards even blamed Kim Il-Sung, leader of North Korea, as going the capitalist road and wanted to go to Korea to arrest him. So when Kim Il-Sung learned it, he was so enraged that he ordered the graves of the Chinese People's Volunteers broken, including the tomb of Mao's son, which was repaired after the cultural revolution.
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文章时间: 2020-5-29 周五, 下午9:13    标题: 引用回复

In 1967, in Canton, there raised a wave to kill the released prisoners from labor reform camps, who were thought as bad people and deserved to die. From the 27th day of August to the 1st day of September, in six days, 325 of those people and their family members were killed. The oldest was 80 years of age and the youngest was only 38 days. What a nation for that!
All the professors in universities and old teachers in middle schools were criticized or even beaten. Some professors were forced to crawl around on the college playground. Some were made stand for long hours in a bowing posture with two arms stretching straight behind, looking like a jet airplane. Some were ordered to bow before the picture of Mao for a long time, too. In Shanghai Conservatory of Music, the professors were forced to slap each other's faces in public. Never say that Chinese people are not wise enough for invention. Since old time, they have invented a lot of new torture equipment and styles. A standing cage was one of them. Any offender would be put inside with his head on the top of it, the neck in a small hole so that he could not move his head down into the cage. He must keep in a standing position for how long he was sentenced to be. It was a trivial torment. For a prisoner, if he rejected to confess his crime what the government official wanted him to confess, two thick wooden sticks would be put on his forelegs, one above and one under, with ropes on both ends. When the ropes were tightened, the pressure on the forelegs through the wooden sticks inflicted pain to the prisoner. The tighter the ropes were, the acuter the pain grew, till the prisoner fainted. For women, small sticks were used between her fingers, with the same effect on her. Another invention was to use an iron piece, made hot in the fire, then put on the chest of the prisoner. His skin on that part would be burned. No one can imagine the pain this torment caused without experience. Brutal inventions of wise Chinese people!
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文章时间: 2020-5-31 周日, 下午9:09    标题: 引用回复

IV. Power-seizing stage of great cultural revolution

Then, the target of the cultural revolution changed to the authorities of the local governments, under Mao's instruction. Mao thought that most of them were supporters of Liu and Deng. Therefore, so-called rebels rose and attacked the local government leaders. They seized power from the leaders and organized so-called Revolutionary Committees to replace the local governments.
Now the cultural revolution was on the power-seizing stage, which was really what Mao aimed at. It began with a movement targeting the petty cadres, really a false move of Mao to set up a snare for Liu; then it went to a stage to openly criticize a play to get rid of some important supporters of Liu in the capital Beijing; then it developed to the red guards stage to cause chaos in the country; then in the chaos, it got to the power seizing stage. It was the critical stage. If successful, smoothly, the last stage would be easy to tide over. The last stage was to put all the supporters of Mao in the local governments after getting rid of all Liu's supporters. The cultural revolution would thus end as planned by Mao and as we can see, looking back. On this critical stage, if Chiang Kai-shek had ordered his army to attack the mainland, no one could tell what would be the future of China. But the stupid Chiang Kai-shek let the opportunity go like sands through his fingers.
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文章时间: 2020-6-01 周一, 下午8:46    标题: 引用回复

Many rebellious groups were organized and fought each other to vie for taking over the power. Generally, at first, they got into a debate. At that time, people all over the country were learning The Little Red Book. Every time people wanted to say something, anything, they must quote something from the Little Red Book first. Even when anyone was to write some self-criticism paper, he must also begin with a quotation from it. Sound ridiculous? That's the fact at the time. So when a debate began between two groups, the debater in each group must quote something from the Little Red Book to prove that what he was saying was in accordance with Mao's instruction. Then the debater from the other group followed suit. But no one could persuade the other. It was called “Quotation Battle” since both sides used Mao's quotations to prove they were the right side. Debates often continued in a fight. But it seemed that quotations from the Little Red Book contradicted each other, or how could the opposite groups both cite from it to support their different opinions?
The rebels among workers in Shanghai called their organization as Shanghai Worker Revolutionary Rebellious Headquarters. The commander-in-chief of this headquarters was Pan Guoping, a young worker from a factory. The famous Wang Hongwen was, at the beginning, the vice commander-in-chief, who was a Party member and a cadre of the lowest rank. On the 3rd of January, 1967, Zhang Chunqiao and Yao Wenyuan, two members of the Gang of Four, came back to Shanghai from Beijing and supported Wang Hongwen to seize power from Shanghai municipal authorities. Pan, being too young, was out of power, and was only made a member of the revolutionary committee. This event was called “January Storm”, which caused the power-seizing action to develop to the whole nation. That was what Mao desired.
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文章时间: 2020-6-03 周三, 下午9:02    标题: 引用回复

V. Quarrel in Huairen Hall in Beijing in February

Huairen Hall is in Beijing, a gathering place for meetings of the leaders of the central committee of CPC. The event began like this: during the “January Storm” in Shanghai, Chen Pixuan, the first secretary of Shanghai municipal party, was afraid of the chaos to paralyze the municipal administration and called Tao Zhu, a member of the central cultural revolutionary group on the 3rd day of January, 1967. Previously on the 25th day of December, 1966, to protect those old revolutionary cadres, Tao Zhu had had a severe quarrel with Jiang Qing, Kang Sheng, and Zhang Chunqiao, who were those tools Mao used to fight Liu and Deng, and their local supporters. After the power seizing, Zhang Chunqiao became the head of Shanghai.
When Tao Zhu received the call from Chen in Shanghai, he went to see Mao and reported it. Mao looked like supporting Tao when Tao was in his presence. But Tao was soon removed from office. Then, premier Zhou Enlai, said to be instructed by Mao, drafted a list of old cadres for protection, including all the first secretaries of provinces. They were escorted to Beijing so that no one could harm them. But Chen Pixuan, the first secretary of Shanghai, was detained by Zhang Chunqiao, which was the fuse of the dispute in Huairen Hall.
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