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儿童弱视家庭治疗问题多

 
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文章时间: 2008-1-13 周日, 下午12:23    标题: 儿童弱视家庭治疗问题多 引用回复

儿童弱视家庭治疗问题多


治疗儿童弱视的方法很多,但由于治疗所需的时间较长,所花的费用较多,所以,家长们通常都首选既方便又经济的家庭治疗方法。但目前,在儿童弱视的家庭治疗中还存在着不少问题。这些问题不仅影响了治疗的效果,也使得一些弱视儿童的家长感到压力很大,有的家长甚至失去了信心,放弃了对孩子的治疗。那么,在儿童弱视的家庭治疗中存在哪些问题呢?

一、只给患儿戴近视镜,不进行其他的治疗

治疗儿童弱视,为患儿戴近视镜只是个应急措施,而不能彻底解决问题,要想彻底解决问题还必须在此基础上,配合其他方法进行治疗,如使用遮盖疗法、视刺激器疗法等,不然的话,这样的患儿在长大后,即使戴近视镜,视力也会很差。另外,有的弱视儿童一副近视镜一戴就是几年,这也是错误的。因为随着儿童身体的发育,其屈光度数会随之发生变化,所以弱视儿童应每半年至一年就重新验光一次,必要时须重配近视镜。

二、不能坚持使用遮盖疗法

弱视的遮盖疗法主要是通过对健康眼或优势眼的遮盖,强迫患儿使用弱视眼看东西,从而消除其优视眼对弱视眼的抑制,达到增强弱视眼视力的目的。它是一种传统的治疗弱视的方法,既方便、经济,效果又好。但由于遮盖眼睛影响了患儿的外观,会引起其他孩子的讥笑,因此,不少弱视儿童不愿接受遮盖疗法。有些家长出于对孩子的怜爱,也就听之任之。如果不能坚持使用遮盖疗法,当然也就达不到治疗弱视的目的。

三、不切实际地进行矫治训练

矫治训练是一种使目力精确的训练,通过让患儿穿珠子、穿针、描画等来锻炼其弱视眼,从而提高其弱视眼的视力。但有些家长求治心切,盲目地对孩子进行训练,企图让患儿苦练几天就达到治愈的目的,这是不切实际的。家长这个不当的训练方法主要表现在两个方面:一是训练的时间过长。有些家长每天都要求孩子穿近百根针,这需要花相当长的时间才能完成。弱视的儿童一般年龄较小,训练的时间一长他们就不能集中注意力,而且会造成眼疲劳,不利于他们弱视眼视力的恢复。其训练时间应该控制在每次15分钟左右。二是训练的方法过于单一。每天进行同一种训练,天长日久,孩子一定会厌烦。因此,家长应该采取多种多样的训练方法,以激发孩子对训练的兴趣,比如,今天穿针,明天描画,后天可以穿珠子、刻剪纸等。这样,孩子就不会觉得训练枯燥无味了,而会主动地参与训练,治疗的效果也就有了保证。

四、忽略对两眼视觉功能的训练

儿童时期正是一个人双眼的视觉功能(同时视、融合视、立体视)建立、发育、完善的时期。如果孩子在这个时期患上了弱视,就会影响其视觉的发育,严重的会丧失双眼的视觉功能,成为立体视觉盲。但是,很多弱视儿童的家长对此却认识不清。他们往往只重视对患儿弱视眼的视力训练,而忽视了对其视觉功能的训练。结果不仅使弱视的治疗效果大大降低,还会影响患儿高级视觉功能的发育和完善。因此,家长一定要重视对患儿视觉功能的训练,平时在训练患儿视力的同时,应对其进行双眼视觉功能的训练。此外,家长还应定期带患儿回医院复查,检查其双眼视觉功能的发育情况,并根据情况及时调整治疗方案。

五、见好就收

儿童的弱视只要治疗及时,方法得当,就会收到明显效果,但容易复发。如果见效后就立即停止治疗,而不进行巩固治疗,孩子弱视眼的视力很快又会下降。对于这一点,许多家长不太清楚。他们往往在孩子的视力恢复正常后,就如释重负,放松甚至停止了治疗,结果导致孩子的弱视很快又复发。因此,治疗儿童弱视,应在患儿弱视眼的视力达到或接近正常后,再进行一个较长时间的巩固治疗,并需经过三年的随访,直到患儿的视力一直保持正常才算治愈。

总之,治疗儿童弱视的关键在于早期发现,进行治疗时患儿的年龄越小,疗效越好。此外,弱视的治疗效果与弱视本身的性质、程度、注视性质有关,也与治疗的方法是否正确、能否坚持治疗、有没有巩固治疗等关系密切。弱视儿童的家长对此应有充分的了解,然后在专业眼科医生的指导下,对患儿进行家庭治疗。同时要适时进行复查,及时调整治疗方案,这样才能使弱视的孩子的视力尽早尽快地得到恢复。


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