<B><a href='http://www.australianwinner.com/AuWinner/index.php?c=12/'>Aust Winner 澳洲长风论坛</a></B>总目录 Aust Winner 澳洲长风论坛

凡发布过激政治、宗教、人身攻击言论,一律删除。

澳洲长风导航 Site Map
 
 帮助帮助   搜索搜索   会员列表会员列表   团队团队   收藏夹收藏夹    注册注册 
 个人资料个人资料   登录并检查站内短信登录并检查站内短信   登录登录 

[原创] Two Republics in China
分页 1, 2  下一页
 
发表新主题   回复主题    Aust Winner 澳洲长风论坛总目录 -> Multi Languages Section 双语作品、西方文学
阅读上一个主题 :: 阅读下一个主题  
作者 正文
海外逸士

会员等级:7




加入时间: 2005/11/08
文章: 1674
来自: America
积分: 9343


文章时间: 2019-8-07 周三, 下午8:18    标题: [原创] Two Republics in China 引用回复

Part One: The First Republic—The Republic of China

Chapter 1. 1911: How the Last Dynasty Crumbled and Warlords Took Over
Rebellion in Wuchang City
A long line of imperial dynasties had held sway over all (or parts) of China from 2100 BCE to 1911. China was a world unto itself for much of these 4,000 years, but history went off its tracks when the British came in. Smoking opium had been a serious crime in China, but for the British opium was big business. And they made it far bigger by slaughtering and pillaging, overwhelming the Chinese by 1842 and forcing them to open up their nation to foreign trade. Soon, British merchants flooded the market with opium grown in India, and millions, perhaps more than 10 million, Chinese were hopelessly addicted. China was reeling and the Qing Dynasty was on the ropes.
The Qing Dynasty (1644–1911) had been established by the Manchus, people that had originated in northeastern China (Manchuria). Although some of their ancestors had periodically been in power in ancient times, it was the Han people that were (and are now) the largest ethnic group in China. The Han could not bear the oppression of these Manchus, whose officials, the Mandarins, were increasingly corrupt. As the Qing Dynasty sank into misery, the Han rose up in a series of rebellions hoping to overthrow the rulers and regain the imperial throne. In an era when some of the ambitious young elite were already studying abroad and learning modern ways, the imperial leaders still maintained a traditional army using ancient weaponry including lances and spears. So the overthrow was easy enough—but what next? Read on, and we’ll see.
返回顶端
阅读会员资料 海外逸士离线  发送站内短信 QQ号码none 雅虎讯息通 MSN
海外逸士

会员等级:7




加入时间: 2005/11/08
文章: 1674
来自: America
积分: 9343


文章时间: 2019-8-09 周五, 下午8:25    标题: 引用回复

Sun Yat-sen (1866–1925) was a revolutionary vanguard and he organized the National Party for the purpose of revitalizing the nation. After a few uprisings were brutally put down, the last successful rebellion broke out in Wuchang City of Sichuan Province, westward along the Yangtze River, upstream from Shanghai. In May of 1911, the Qing government had nationalized or appropriated two railways that were private Chinese companies, without giving the owners any compensation, and then sold them to foreigners. Needless to say, the local people wanted to defend their rights. The most violent reactions took place in Sichuan Province. The Qing government did have a New Army too (trained in the use of guns and cannons), and they sent them in. But in this division, many soldiers and even officers were actually members of the revolutionaries. So some leaders of the National Party planned a rebellion in the army.
A regiment was camped at the north gate of Wuchang City. Around 6 o’clock, on the 10th of October, many rebellious soldiers marched toward the armory in the city with the intention of seizing it. At that time, in the camp a platoon leader was making his rounds to check on the soldiers and he found that many were absent. He also saw the squad leader was lying on his bed, so he yelled at him, “What are you doing? You want to rebel?” (That’s a Chinese way of putting down one’s subordinates.) The squad leader never had thought much of his platoon leader, so he replied insolently, “You said I’d rebel. Now I’m rebelling.” A soldier standing nearby simply shot the platoon leader dead.
Now the battalion leader came in and he was shot dead, too. Seizing this opportunity, the National Party’s point man in the new army, who was the leader of another squad, declared a rebellion and called for his men to take up their arms right then and there.
Soldiers from many different camps came to their aid, the number reaching more than 3,000. They controlled a cannon field and attacked the governor’s residence under the command of Wu Zhaoling, an officer in the eighth battalion. They called themselves the Revolutionary Army. The governor escaped to a warship on the river. The Revolutionary Army occupied the city.
Revolutionaries in Hanyang and Hankou cities also raised the banner of rebellion. On the 11th of October, the Revolutionary Army took over Hanyang City and on the 12th day, they occupied Hankou City. Three cities in a row.
返回顶端
阅读会员资料 海外逸士离线  发送站内短信 QQ号码none 雅虎讯息通 MSN
海外逸士

会员等级:7




加入时间: 2005/11/08
文章: 1674
来自: America
积分: 9343


文章时间: 2019-8-11 周日, 下午8:55    标题: 引用回复

The Establishment of the Republic of China.
Then the Revolutionary Army founded the military government and asked Li Yuanhong (1864–1928) to be the governor, and they declared the new state to be the Republic of China. At the beginning of November, at the proposal of Song Jiaoren (1882–1913) and some others, a constitution was drafted and called “The Temporary Constitution of Republic of China.” It had seven chapters and sixty articles. The government consisted of the governor, the congress and the court. People were granted democratic rights, the right to own private property, and the right to do business. The government decided that the 10th of October should be the national day for the Republic of China.
From the 18th of October to the 27th of November, the Revolutionary Army put up strong resistance against the army of the Qing government, which was massive. During those 41 days, most of the provinces declared their independence; only four provinces close to Peking, the capital (now called Beijing), still supported the Qing Dynasty. The governors of the independent provinces controlled the local army and became warlords.
All the independent provinces formed their own military governments. On the 1st of November, the Qing government appointed Yuan Shikai (1859–1916) premier. On the 1st of December, the Revolutionary Army and Yuan signed a truce. On the 2nd of December, the united army of Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces occupied Nanking. On the 12th of December, representatives from all 14 independent provinces gathered in Nanking for a meeting. On the 17th of December, the representatives elected Li Yuanhong as the General Marshal and Huang Xing (1874–1916) as the Vice General Marshal.
On the 1st of January, 1912, the temporary government of the Republic of China established Nanking as its capital, breaking away from the Qing power base in Peking, and elected Sun Yat-sen as the temporary president.
返回顶端
阅读会员资料 海外逸士离线  发送站内短信 QQ号码none 雅虎讯息通 MSN
海外逸士

会员等级:7




加入时间: 2005/11/08
文章: 1674
来自: America
积分: 9343


文章时间: 2019-8-12 周一, 下午8:59    标题: 引用回复

On the 12th of February, 1912, the last emperor of the Qing dynasty, Fu Yi (1906–1967, his English name: Henry) abdicated and the last dynasty ended, and with it ended the entire imperial system which had begun long ago and had lasted in much the same form for 2,000 years. But the imperial family still lived in the Forbidden City inside Peking.
The new republic had its national flag with five colors signifying the unity of five major tribes in China. They were the Han tribe, the Mandarin tribe, the Mongolian tribe, the Muslin tribe, and the Tibetan tribe, represented by horizontal bars of red, yellow, blue, white and black.
But the designs of the national flag for the Republic of China changed a few times, until the design was chosen which eventually became the national flag, now still used in Taiwan: red background with a blue rectangle in the upper left corner, inside of which there is a 12-cornered white star.
With the establishment of the Republic of China, men cut off their queues, or braided pigtails, and wore short hair, more Western style. This style of shaving the front of the head and wearing the hair in a braid was originally imposed as a sign of submission demanded by the first Manchu Emperor. When they invaded the southern territories and occupied the lands of the Han tribe, they forced them to comply, too. If anyone refused to shave his front hair, he would be beheaded. The famous slogan was “Your hair or your head.” For that reason, there had been a slaughter in Yangzhou city at that time, lasting for 10 days. Since the Revolution was victorious, now the pigtail had to go.
返回顶端
阅读会员资料 海外逸士离线  发送站内短信 QQ号码none 雅虎讯息通 MSN
海外逸士

会员等级:7




加入时间: 2005/11/08
文章: 1674
来自: America
积分: 9343


文章时间: 2019-8-14 周三, 下午8:36    标题: 引用回复

At the same time, women were freed of the custom of binding their feet; in fact, a major campaign was waged to discourage it. That custom had originated more than 1,000 years ago and affected all but the lowest workers, who could hardly afford to cripple themselves. (The Manchu Emperor had tried to ban it in 1664 but few paid any heed, as beauty, after all, comes at a price.) Now the revolution redefined some of the ideals of femininity and definitively freed women from the agony of crushing their feet.
The Qing Dynasty had persisted for almost 300 years. Why didn’t it last longer? It was certainly not the fault of the last emperor, who was only three years old when he was put on the throne. The Qing Dynasty had degenerated over time, as most of them do, and corruption had grown worse and worse in the reign of Empress Dowager Cixi (1835–1908), his flamboyant grandmother, the subject of my earlier book Empress Dowager Cixi (Algora, 2002).
In the long history of China, two different women had managed to rule the country for tens of years. The first one was Empress Wu the Great, during the Tang Dynasty (AD 618–907). She read a great deal and trained herself as a politician and ruler. She ruled the country well (Empress Wu the Great, Algora, 2008). But Empress Dowager Cixi was no diplomat, no politician, and no wise ruler. She adopted wrong-headed policies. She came into power because of her status as the empress dowager. In her hands, the mansion of the great empire crumbled just like a house whose wooden beams and pillars are eaten through by white ants. The last emperor would not have been able to support it any more, no matter what.
返回顶端
阅读会员资料 海外逸士离线  发送站内短信 QQ号码none 雅虎讯息通 MSN
海外逸士

会员等级:7




加入时间: 2005/11/08
文章: 1674
来自: America
积分: 9343


文章时间: 2019-8-16 周五, 下午8:14    标题: 引用回复

The Ambition of Yuan Shikai
How Yuan became president of the Republic of China
When the Republic of China set its capital in Nanking on the 1st of January, 1912, Sun Yat-sen was elected temporary president and Li Yuanhong was elected vice president. At that time, the Emperor had not abdicated yet. The battle between the Revolutionary Army and the Qing army was still going on. The new army of the Qing government was organized and trained by Yuan Shikai (1859–1916), its commander. Yuan had a scheme of his own and began seeking a truce with the Revolutionary Army. Then he set his sights on the position of the President of the republic and forced the Emperor to abdicate.
Sun Yat-sen had no army that he himself had organized to support him. He had been elected temporary president owing to his reputation as a firm revolutionary against the Qing Dynasty. The Revolutionary Army was controlled by the governors (warlords) of the separate provinces; they signed an agreement with Yuan and refused to fight Yuan for Sun Yat-sen. Therefore, Sun Yat-sen had to give in. He resigned, and he nominated Yuan for president on the 15th of February. Accordingly, Yuan was named temporary president of the republic. As a rule, the president ought to live in the capital, which was Nanking, not Peking where Yuan lived. Yuan refused to come south because he could not bring his army south and would instead be controlled by the Revolutionary Army. After negotiations, the Revolutionary Army had to give in and let Yuan take office in Peking. But the congress was still in Nanking, controlled by the national Party.
返回顶端
阅读会员资料 海外逸士离线  发送站内短信 QQ号码none 雅虎讯息通 MSN
海外逸士

会员等级:7




加入时间: 2005/11/08
文章: 1674
来自: America
积分: 9343


文章时间: 2019-8-18 周日, 下午7:35    标题: 引用回复

In February 1913, the congress elected Song Jiaoren to be the Premier of the cabinet. At that time, Yuan had Zhao Binjun as his premier. However, on the 20th of March, Song was assassinated at the railway station in Shanghai. When the assassin was caught, evidence on his person linked him to Zhao—actual letters between Zhao and the assassin, no less. So the national Party drew the conclusion that Yuan was behind it. Zhao resigned under pressure from the press. Duan Qirui (1865–1936) was appointed to take over the office of the premier.
After the assassination, Sun Yat-sen, who was at the time on a visit in Japan, came back to Shanghai and summoned a meeting of the national Party. He suggested avenging Yuan with armed force, though some other leaders like Huang Xing tended to appeal to less violent conduct.
On the 26th of April, Yuan asked for a syndicate loan of 25 million British pounds from the lending consortium in China consisting of England, France, Germany, Russia and Japan. The national Party thought that the loan request was illegal, as it would require approval by the congress first. In May, Li Liejun, the governor of Jiangxi province, Hu Hanming, the governor of Guangdong province, and Bo Wenwei, the governor of Anhui province, declared their opposition to the loan. The three governors were all members of the national Party. In June, Yuan gave orders to remove the three from their positions as governors. On the 3rd of July, Yuan sent the sixth division of his new army to Jiangxi province.
返回顶端
阅读会员资料 海外逸士离线  发送站内短信 QQ号码none 雅虎讯息通 MSN
海外逸士

会员等级:7




加入时间: 2005/11/08
文章: 1674
来自: America
积分: 9343


文章时间: 2019-8-19 周一, 下午8:39    标题: 引用回复

Under instructions from Sun Yat-sen, Li Liejun declared the independence of Jiangxi province on the 12th of the same month, and formed a separate headquarters from which to oppose Yuan. On the 15th, Huang Xing reached Nanking and declared the independence of Jiangsu province. Quite a few provinces followed suit.
On the 22nd of July, the national Army from Jiangsu province fought a battle with Yuan’s army at Xuzhou of Shandong province and was defeated. The national Army was conquered in some other places, too. Then all the independent provinces had to rescind their declarations of independence. Yuan issued orders to arrest Sun Yat-sen and Huang Xing, who had already escaped to Japan. This event was called the Second Revolution, but it ended in failure.
On the 6th of October, the congress held a session in Peking and the congressmen were forced to elect Yuan Shikai as president and Li Yuanhong as vice president of the republic. Yuan took the official oath on the 10th of October.
返回顶端
阅读会员资料 海外逸士离线  发送站内短信 QQ号码none 雅虎讯息通 MSN
海外逸士

会员等级:7




加入时间: 2005/11/08
文章: 1674
来自: America
积分: 9343


文章时间: 2019-8-21 周三, 下午8:47    标题: 引用回复

Yuan wanted to be the new emperor
On the 4th of November, Yuan gave an order to disband the national Party, using their rebellion as a pretext. Simultaneously, he drove all the members of the national Party out of the congress. On the 10th of January, 1914, Yuan dismissed the congress entirely and formed his own council of state, which meant that all the members were his men. He was still dissatisfied with being president. He wanted to be emperor.
To attain his goal, he first had to get international support. In January of 1915, Japan secretly gave Yuan a document containing 21 articles in 5 chapters, through which China should cede to Japan a variety of economic and commercial rights and benefits, such as options on railroads and other profitable fields in Manchuria, and in Shandong province, and also the extension of Japan’s occupation of Luushun and Dalian (two harbor cities) to 99 years, etc. But two articles in particular were unacceptable. One was to employ Japanese advisors in the Chinese central government, in the financial and military fields. The other was to employ Japanese advisors in local police departments. The negotiations ran from the 2nd of February to the 7th of May.
Yuan accepted most of the articles in order to secure Japan’s support for his ambition to be emperor. But such a big secret could not be kept for long and soon the public heard that he was selling them out. Yuan was severely criticized, but to no avail.
Then Yuan’s supporters began to circulate their theory that the republican form of government was not suitable to China. They formed a committee on the political future of China and sent out their men to all the provinces to persuade officials and officers and businessmen to support Yuan as emperor, promising all of them personal benefits. Then such supporters were summoned to the capital as “people’s representatives.” Those representatives formed groups and on the 1st of September handed a petition to the Council of State organized by Yuan) to ask Yuan to be the emperor.
返回顶端
阅读会员资料 海外逸士离线  发送站内短信 QQ号码none 雅虎讯息通 MSN
海外逸士

会员等级:7




加入时间: 2005/11/08
文章: 1674
来自: America
积分: 9343


文章时间: 2019-8-23 周五, 下午8:23    标题: 引用回复

In a traditional show of modesty, Yuan initially refused their petition. On the 19th, they organized the “National Petition Committee” to turn in a second petition, this time requesting that the 1993 people’s representatives should hold a conference to decide the future of the nation. Accordingly, the conference was in session at 9 o’clock in the morning on December 11. The representatives were to cast votes. All the representatives voted for imperial system. Yuan graciously accepted the result as the supposed will of the people, and decided that the next year (1916) would be the first year of his Empire of China.

In December, just after Yuan accepted the petition, Cai E, the governor of YunNan province, was the first to object. He announced the independence of YunNan, followed by many provinces. Even Yuan’s former subordinates, Feng Guozhang (1859–1916), governor of Jiangsu province, Li Chun, governor of Jiangxi province, Zhu Rui, governor of Zhejiang province, Jin Yunpeng, governor of Shandong province, and Tang Xiangming, governor of Hunan province, all sent telegrams asking Yuan to rescind the empire.
返回顶端
阅读会员资料 海外逸士离线  发送站内短信 QQ号码none 雅虎讯息通 MSN
海外逸士

会员等级:7




加入时间: 2005/11/08
文章: 1674
来自: America
积分: 9343


文章时间: 2019-8-25 周日, 下午7:54    标题: 引用回复

Seeing that even his former subordinates had betrayed him, Yuan had to declare openly that he was rescinding the empire and restoring the presidency on the 22nd of March, 1916. He had been Emperor only for 83 days. Once a high military official of the Qing Dynasty, he had turned against the empire, and then he was subverted in turn. He contracted a fatal disease and died on the 6th of June.
If he had not been so ambitious and had contented himself with the presidency, Yuan would have been spared the hatred of almost all the people in China. He would not have been betrayed by his closest generals, who commanded part of his new army. But he went against the historical tide, against the will of people. He wanted to turn back time to the imperial age. As a president, his subordinates only had to stand up before him and salute him, whereas during his heady days as emperor, his subordinates had to kneel before him and kowtow to him. Any man who has had a chance to stand up never wants to bend his knees again. Sense of dignity.
There would have to be a public funeral for Yuan. According to the law, when the president died, the vice president would succeed him. So Li Yuanhong became the president. Also, as a rule, the public funeral for a deceased president should be led by the succeeding president. But Li had a little problem with Yuan, for Yuan had imprisoned Li. That made it rather hard for Li to feign any esteem of Yuan. So on the day of the funeral, he just went there to bow once and left, back to his office. As etiquette required, he should have bowed at least three times. Then the Premier Duan Qirui took over the role.
返回顶端
阅读会员资料 海外逸士离线  发送站内短信 QQ号码none 雅虎讯息通 MSN
海外逸士

会员等级:7




加入时间: 2005/11/08
文章: 1674
来自: America
积分: 9343


文章时间: 2019-8-26 周一, 下午8:14    标题: 引用回复

Restoration of the abdicated emperor
Li and Duan had also clashed. Their opinions and political attitudes were different. As Li had no supporters in the government, Duan had no respect for him. Duan also had command of part of the new army. So Li sought support outside the capital.
In May of 1917, during the First World War, there was a dispute about whether China would join in the war or not. Duan, supported by Japan, was in favor of joining the war, while Li and most of the congressmen thought it better not to join the war. On the 23rd of May, Li issued an order to remove Duan from the office of premier. Duan went to Tianjin City and instigated all the governors to declare independence. So Li summoned General Zhang Xun (1854–1923) to the capital to mediate.
Zhang Xun was still loyal to the Qing Dynasty and the soldiers in his army still maintained their queues. So his army was called the pigtail army. He thought that this was a great opportunity and took five thousand soldiers with him. On the 14th of June, he entered Peking. On the night of the 30th of June, he sent his soldiers to occupy strategic points like the railway station and telegraph office. He went to see Li and tried to persuade him to return the political power to the abdicated emperor Fu Yi, by now using the Western name of Henry, but got a flat refusal.
On the 1st of July, 1917, Zhang Xun let the abdicated emperor sit on the throne again and issue a few orders, such as to change the national flag from the five-colored flag (the symbol of Republic of China) to dragon flag (the symbol of the Qing Dynasty).
返回顶端
阅读会员资料 海外逸士离线  发送站内短信 QQ号码none 雅虎讯息通 MSN
海外逸士

会员等级:7




加入时间: 2005/11/08
文章: 1674
来自: America
积分: 9343


文章时间: 2019-8-28 周三, 下午8:13    标题: 引用回复

On the 2nd of July, Li went to the Japanese embassy for protection while issuing two orders: appointing Feng Guozhang as the deputy president and restored Duan to the office of the premier. So on the 3rd of July, Duan gathered his army, and on the 14th day, he defeated Zhang Xun’s pigtail army. Zhang Xun escaped to the Dutch embassy, then went to live in Tianjin City. The Emperor abdicated once more. And Duan went to the Japanese embassy to welcome Li back to his presidency. On the 28th of August, Li went to Tianjin City after resigning.
Thus, in the early history of the Republic of China, there were two restorations. One was under Yuan Shikai, who wanted to be emperor himself and founded the Empire of China. The other was Zhang Xun, who put the abdicated emperor on the throne again. But both quickly ended in failure. The chariot of history always runs forward and no one can pull it back. People won’t go back to the old life style once they start to enjoy a new one, especially one that offers more freedom and dignity.
As Li Yuanhong resigned from the presidency, the deputy president Feng Guozhang became the president. Feng was the governor of Jiangsu province and lived in Nanking. Now he was the president and had to take up office in Peking. That left the position of governor of Jiangsu province vacant. Duan wanted to appoint Duan Zhigui as the governor there, but Feng wanted to appoint Li Chun, the present governor of Jiangxi province as the governor of Jiangsu province. He promoted Chen Guangyuan, who was the commander of the twelfth division, to be the governor of Jiangxi province. Both were supporters of Feng. Before he left for Peking, he divided his army into two divisions. The sixteenth division would stay in Jiangsu province. He brought his fifteenth division to Peking as his bodyguard so that he wouldn’t be controlled by Duan.
Duan dismissed the old congress because most of the congressmen had opposed him on the question of joining in the First World War. Since there was no more congress, the Duan government declared war against Germany and Austria.
返回顶端
阅读会员资料 海外逸士离线  发送站内短信 QQ号码none 雅虎讯息通 MSN
海外逸士

会员等级:7




加入时间: 2005/11/08
文章: 1674
来自: America
积分: 9343


文章时间: 2019-8-30 周五, 下午8:08    标题: 引用回复

May 4 student movement
On the 23rd of August, 1914, Japan declared war against Germany and took over Jiaozhou Bay in Shandong province, formerly occupied by Germany. They fought for 70 days. Then in January 1915, Japan had put the 21 articles to Yuan, who accepted most of them. These were considered a national insult, which caused great dissatisfaction with the government among Chinese intellectuals, including university students.
China declared war against Germany on the 14th of August, 1917, actually at the end of the First World War, so that China was one of the victorious countries. But at the Paris Peace Conference, which produced the Versailles Treaty, Japan was allowed to continue its occupation of Jiaozhou Bay, which should have been returned to China since it was in the territory of China and formerly was occupied by Germany.
The public called upon the Chinese representative at the conference to refuse to sign on the treaty, but the government secretly instructed the representative to go ahead and sign it. When the news became openly known, the students at Peking University held an emergency meeting on the 1st of May. On the night of the 3rd day, students from other universities joined in the action. They decided to hold a demonstration on TianAnMen Square on the 4th of May, which was Sunday. Thus began the May 4 movement.
At one o’clock in the afternoon, the students marched towards the neighborhood where all the embassies were and distributed copies of a memorandum, which was refused by all the embassies except the American one. Then they went to the residence of Cao Rulin, minister of transportation (to complain about the railway problem with Japan), where they saw Zhang Zongxiang, the Chinese ambassador to Japan. The students gave both a good beating and set fire to the residence. For that, 32 students were arrested.
To rescue the students, the professors called on the public to declare a strike of all students, teachers, workers, and shop-owners. The government forbade it and arrested more people. The chaos lasted into June; people answered the call of the professors and the movement spread to many cities. Even railway workers started to strike. On the 11th of June, Professor Chen Duxiu (1879–1942) and others distributed pamphlets in public, and Chen was arrested. The chaos worsened. Under such pressure, the government had to give in. It dismissed Cao and Zhang from office and released those in jail. On the 28th of June, the representative attending the Paris Peace Conference did not sign the treaty.
This movement was influential not only in politics, but also in culture. Many changes were introduced. Professor Hu Shih proposed that language as spoken should be used in writing instead of the classical language. Hence, the language style in use was changed, even in newspapers. So the May 4 movement is also called the new cultural movement.
返回顶端
阅读会员资料 海外逸士离线  发送站内短信 QQ号码none 雅虎讯息通 MSN
海外逸士

会员等级:7




加入时间: 2005/11/08
文章: 1674
来自: America
积分: 9343


文章时间: 2019-9-01 周日, 下午9:03    标题: 引用回复

Battles in the southwestern provinces

Chinese historians define the men who command independent armies as warlords. In many periods this included the governors of provinces, and even premiers like Duan, who had his own army. The local warlords often disobeyed the central government. If the central government wanted any governor to obey its orders, it had to send an army to defeat him. And the provincial governors often fought one another to increase their power base. As a result, many periods of history were fraught with turmoil.
Although Yuan Shikai died, his former supporters controlled most provinces. Only five provinces in southwestern China were under the influence of the national Party. They were Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Guangdong and Guangxi provinces.
In Sichuan province there were three armies. One came from Yunnan province. One came from Guizhou province. And the third one was formed of local soldiers. Each of them wanted to take control of Sichuan province and they fought one another from time to time. Premier Duan of the central government wanted to control this province, too. So he sent a detachment of his army to Sichuan province. Then, the three local armies united to fight against Duan’s army, which had to retreat.
After the failure of the second revolution, Sun Yat-sen endeavored to make another attempt. He gained the support of the Navy’s First Fleet. In 1917, the governor of Guangdong province proposed to Sun that he could use this province as his headquarters against the warlord government in Peking. On the 10th of July, Sun took two warships to Shantou Town and sent Zhang Binglin to Guangdong province as his representative. The situation in that province was complicated, though. On the 17th, when Sun arrived in Canton on board a warship, he was welcomed. On the 22nd day, the commander of the First Fleet brought his fleet to Guangdong province, too. They announced that since the dismissal of the Congress, any orders from the Peking government were unlawful.
返回顶端
阅读会员资料 海外逸士离线  发送站内短信 QQ号码none 雅虎讯息通 MSN
海外逸士

会员等级:7




加入时间: 2005/11/08
文章: 1674
来自: America
积分: 9343


文章时间: 2019-9-02 周一, 下午9:40    标题: 引用回复

When Duan learned the news, he promoted the commander of the Second Fleet to be the commander of the navy and appointed another admiral as commander of the First Fleet, which was not under his control any more. On the 25th day Duan ordered to remove the governor of Guangdong province from office, but the governor refused to recognize the order.
Sun Yat-sen invited the congressmen to come south. In mid-August, more than 130 congressmen arrived in Canton. On the 18th, at a welcome party, all the attendees agreed to organize a new military government, which was founded on the 10th of September. When Duan heard of this, he issued a “wanted” bulletin for Sun Yat-sen, and the military government also issued a “wanted” bulletin for Duan. The five provinces in the southeastern China supported the military government against Duan, who sent his army into Hunan province in hopes of defeating the army of the military government.
On the 6th of October, two armies engaged in battle near Xiangtan Town. Contrary to Duan’s hopes, his army was forced to withdraw. It looked bad for him, and many provinces announced their support for the military government. Duan had to resign as premier.
President Feng called upon both sides to stop fighting. Duan had always been a threat to the independent governors in the southeastern region, and now they felt that the sword of Damocles had been removed, so they agreed to the truce. But on the 2nd of December, 1917, Duan instigated ten northern governors to take action against the southeastern provinces. On the 6th, they pressed President Feng to issue orders to continue the war. Meanwhile, Zhang Zuolin, the warlord in the northeastern China, led his army into Peking. Under such pressure, Feng had to ask Duan to resume the office of premier.
返回顶端
阅读会员资料 海外逸士离线  发送站内短信 QQ号码none 雅虎讯息通 MSN
海外逸士

会员等级:7




加入时间: 2005/11/08
文章: 1674
来自: America
积分: 9343


文章时间: 2019-9-04 周三, 下午8:24    标题: 引用回复

Duan re-organized his army to attack the army of the military government, which now lost the support of the other governors and had to fight alone. It was soon defeated. But Wu Peifu (1874–1939), the commander of Duan’s army, ceased his assault and made a truce with the military government, ignoring Duan’s command. As Feng and Duan always had conflicts of opinion, or in reality, of personal interests, both agreed to resign at the same time. That was on the 4th of September, 1918.
Sun Yat-sen’s goal was to let his National Party unite the whole of China under the rule of his party. But this ran counter to the interests of the warlords. So he lost most of his supporters and only a few were left. On the 21st of May, 1918, he left Canton for Shanghai, where he met Chiang Kai-shek (1887–1975). The military government was controlled by the armies of Yunnan and Guangxi provinces.
As Sun resigned and left Canton, his army (under the command of Chen Jiongming) went to Fujian province, and together with the army under the command of Chiang Kai-shek they defeated Duan’s army there. That happened in June of 1918.
Although Duan was not in the cabinet, he still had his army. So Zhang Zuoling (1875–1928) and Wu Peifu allied to fight him. On the 14th of July, 1920, Duan’s army was overcome. Then Xu Shichang, who had nothing under his control, was selected (not elected, as there was no more congress) by the warlords to be a puppet president.
In August 1920, the army stationed in Fujian province marched back to Guangdong province to assail the Guangxi province army there. On the 28th of October, the military government was back under the control of Sun’s army. So on the 28th of November, Sun returned to Canton.
On the 12th of January, 1921, a special congress was organized and on the 2nd of April, the congress held a session to annul the military government and resume the name of the Republic of China. On the 7th day, Sun was elected President and took an oath at a ceremony on the 5th of May.
返回顶端
阅读会员资料 海外逸士离线  发送站内短信 QQ号码none 雅虎讯息通 MSN
海外逸士

会员等级:7




加入时间: 2005/11/08
文章: 1674
来自: America
积分: 9343


文章时间: 2019-9-06 周五, 下午8:29    标题: 引用回复

Sun Yat-sen went north, looking to overthrow the Peking government

Sun Yat-sen still persisted in marching north to overthrow the Peking government. He thought of it as a warlord government, not a revolutionary government. He wanted to found a revolutionary government for the people. Anyway, the governors of all the provinces and even Chen Jiongming (1878–1933), the commander of his army (actually another warlord), did not see things that way. Those men only wanted to have a federal government of warlords.
On the 26th of March, 1922, Sun Yat-sen held a meeting and decided to go north to take down the Peking government. On the 9th of April, when the Revolutionary Army reached the Meng River, it was blockaded by Chen Jiongming’s army which was encamped there. Sun gave orders that if Chen’s army did not make way for him, he would launch an attack. When Sun reached Wuzhou Town, he summoned Chen to meet him, but Chen refused to go there. Sun removed him from the position of commander. Chen wanted his army to prepare for a war against Sun, but the army in Canton refused to carry out his order. There was nothing he could do but go back to his old home in Huizhou Town. However, part of his army was still loyal to him.
In early April 1922, Wu Peifu sent an emissary to contact Chen and asked him to prevent Sun Yat-sen by force from going north. Meantime, Duan and Zhang Zuolin wanted to ally with Sun to vanquish Wu. The situation got complicated. Everyone was putting his own interests first and relationships between friends and enemies often changed.
返回顶端
阅读会员资料 海外逸士离线  发送站内短信 QQ号码none 雅虎讯息通 MSN
海外逸士

会员等级:7




加入时间: 2005/11/08
文章: 1674
来自: America
积分: 9343


文章时间: 2019-9-08 周日, 下午8:17    标题: 引用回复

On the 23rd of April, Sun Yat-sen gathered his generals for a meeting in his presidential residence to decide what to do next. There were two options. One was to first annihilate Chen’s army so that he could not give the Revolutionary Army a stab from behind. Chiang Kai-shek held this opinion. The other was to immediately march north, while doing their best to avoid any conflict with Chen’s army. Sun tended toward the second opinion, as he thought that Chen had not really betrayed him, at least not yet. He had no reason to attack Chen. Chiang Kai-shek thought that Chen would at long last betray Sun. Since Sun did not believe him, he left Guangdong province, while writing a letter to Chen advising him not to betray Sun.
When Sun Yat-sen came back to Canton, he still allowed Chen to be the commander of the first army. But Chen refused to take the appointment. On the 28th of April, Zhang Zuolin, Duan Qirui and Sun Yat-sen formed an alliance to fight Wu Peifu. Sun thought that this created an opportunity for him to go north.
On the 4th of May, Zhang’s army was beaten by Wu’s, and Zhang had to retreat back to where he had come from, northeastern China. Wu took control in Peking. Wu had a secret agreement with Chen Jiongming that he would drive away the current president, Xu Shichang, and Chen would drive away Sun Yat-sen. Then the first step was to let Li Yuanhong back into the presidency and get him to wipe out all the warlords everywhere, except of course the two of them. If Li failed to do so, he would be the scapegoat. If he succeeded, Wu and Chen would use the congress to have themselves elected as the president and the vice president.
So they announced that the current president Xu was illegal. Xu resigned on the 2nd of June. Once back in the presidency, Li denounced that warrant that was out for Sun Yat-sen and invited him to Peking to discuss national affairs. He also appointed many warlords in the south, but none of them accepted his appointments. Afterwards, as Wu and Chen saw that Li could do nothing for them, they forced Li to quit the presidency again. Li went back to Tianjin City.
On the 9th of May, Sun issued an order for a general attack, and on the 13th of June, the Revolutionary Army put Wu’s army to rout in Jiangxi province. Wu sent his man to Chen and asked him to take action as soon as possible.
返回顶端
阅读会员资料 海外逸士离线  发送站内短信 QQ号码none 雅虎讯息通 MSN
海外逸士

会员等级:7




加入时间: 2005/11/08
文章: 1674
来自: America
积分: 9343


文章时间: 2019-9-09 周一, 下午9:30    标题: 引用回复

Chen Jiongming Turns Traitor in Canton

When Chen went back to his hometown, he took with him a lot of guns and ammunition, enough to arm 40 battalions. On the 20th of May, Chen’s subordinate, Ye Ju, led his troops into Canton and started a treasonous action. By the 1st of June, the situation had become acute. Liao Zhongkai, a faithful follower of Sun, sent a telegram to Sun Yat-sen asking him to come back to Canton. When Sun was back in Canton, he summoned Chen, but Chen refused to come.
On the 12th of June, Sun Yat-sen ordered Ye Ju out of Canton. Next day, Chen and Ye secretly met at Shilong. They knew that, to prevent Sun from going north to fight Wu, they would have to cut off his access to financing. Liao was the person who provided Sun with everything. So they decided to kidnap Liao. On the 14th day, Chen sent a telegram to Liao to invite him to his hometown for some important business. On the fifth day, Liao went there and was detained. Then Ye Ju maneuvered his troops and planned to attack Sun’s residence with cannons. On the 16th day, Sun was informed of this and took refuge on a warship.
On the 19th, Sun Yat-sen sent a telegram to the Revolutionary Army at the frontier to come back to Guangdong province. On the 2nd of July, the Revolutionary Army started to assail Chen’s army in Guangdong province, and beat the betraying army. Chen sent a telegram to Wu seeking assistance. Wu sent some troops to Guangdong province. On the 26th of July, the Revolutionary Army was chasing after Chen’s retreating army but met with the reinforcements sent by Wu. Therefore, the Revolutionary Army had to withdraw. When Sun Yat-sen learned this, he had to leave Guangdong province and go to Shanghai. Liao was released and left Canton. When Chen attempted to assassinate him afterwards, he was already gone.
返回顶端
阅读会员资料 海外逸士离线  发送站内短信 QQ号码none 雅虎讯息通 MSN
海外逸士

会员等级:7




加入时间: 2005/11/08
文章: 1674
来自: America
积分: 9343


文章时间: 2019-9-11 周三, 下午8:10    标题: 引用回复

On the 16th of August, 1922, Sun Yat-sen made a statement accusing Chen of betrayal. To annihilate the treacherous army, Sun determined to ally with Duan. In October, he appointed Xu Chongzhi as the commander-in-chief and Chiang Kai-shek as the chief of staff. On one side, the Revolutionary Army together with Duan’s army vanquished Wu’s army. On the other, the armies of Yunnan and Guangxi provinces, who supported Sun, defeated Chen’s army. On the 14th of January, 1923, troops in Guangdong province turned over to Sun and attacked Chen, who escaped to his hometown, Huizhou.
On the 15th of February, Sun Yat-sen returned to Canton. In April, Chen Hongying, a warlord in Guangxi province, accepted the appointment of the Peking government to be the governor of Guangdong province, and came to attack Canton, but was soon subdued. He escaped to Hong Kong.
At the end of 1924, Sun went to Peking to discuss national affairs, but he was fatally ill. In February the Revolutionary Army, now under the full command of Chiang Kai-shek, marched east to wipe out the warlords there. Sun died on the 12th of March, 1925. He famously wrote, in his will, “The revolution is not successful yet; comrades must still make efforts.” That June, Chen Jiongming betrayed the cause again, but he was soon wiped out by Chiang Kai-shek.
返回顶端
阅读会员资料 海外逸士离线  发送站内短信 QQ号码none 雅虎讯息通 MSN
海外逸士

会员等级:7




加入时间: 2005/11/08
文章: 1674
来自: America
积分: 9343


文章时间: 2019-9-13 周五, 下午8:56    标题: 引用回复

Early History of the Communist Party of China (CPC)

The organization of the Communist Party of China

In April 1920, the Communist International sent Grigori Voitinsky to China. In May, he found Chen Duxiu, 42 at the time, and sought to contact some revolutionary young men in other cities to establish the Communist Party of China, the CPC. Chen was the professor who had been arrested in the May 4 student movement in 1919. In August 1920, under instructions of the Soviet Communist Party, the Communist Party of China was established in Shanghai. At that time, it was called Communist Group with Chen Duxiu as the general secretary.
But after the Communisst Party took over the reign of the mainland, public data they issued state that the first meeting of the Communist Party was held about a year later, in Shanghai, on the 1st of July, 1921. Why was the earlier date concealed from the public? There might be two reasons. One was that they wanted to cover up the fact that the Communist International had had a hand in it. The other is that Mao attended the meeting in Shanghai, so by emphasizing that meeting they could say that Mao was one of the founders, enhancing his image. But the meeting was in 1920, not in 1921 in Shanghai.
Fifteen people attended the meeting on the 23rd of July, 1921, at 106 Wangzhi Road (presently 76 Xingye Road) in Shanghai. These included Mao Zedong (1893–1976); Dong Biwu (1886–1975, later the vice chairman of the People’s Republic of China); Zhang Guotao (1897–1979, later commander of the Red 4th Army in the Long March); Chen Gongbo (1890–1946); and Zhou Fohai (1897–1948). The last two later defected to Japanese invaders in Sino–Japanese War (1937—1945). Also present were Malin and Nico Chhabra (representatives from the Communist International).
返回顶端
阅读会员资料 海外逸士离线  发送站内短信 QQ号码none 雅虎讯息通 MSN
海外逸士

会员等级:7




加入时间: 2005/11/08
文章: 1674
来自: America
积分: 9343


文章时间: 2019-9-15 周日, 下午8:34    标题: 引用回复

Soon some suspicious men were found lurking outside the house. The meeting broke up and everyone discretely slipped away. And the next day, they met on a boat on the South Lake in Jiaxing Town, casually playing mahjong while in fact continuing their meeting. Thus the Communist Party of China was established. At that time it had only 50 members.
On the 23rd of December, 1921, accompanied by an interpreter, Malin went to see Sun Yat-sen in Guilin City of Guangxi province. He stayed there for nine days and concluded that Communist Party members could join the National Party while still maintaining their status in the Communist Party. This would help the Communist Party to develop. But his idea was strongly opposed by some party members, especially Chen Duxiu who was then the leader of the party. So on the 23rd of April, 1922, Malin left Shanghai for Holland, by sea, and then, through Berlin, made it to Moscow. He reported his work in China to the Soviet Communist Party, which consented to his idea. On the 27th of July, the Soviet Union sent a representative to China, together with Malin, with instructions. Malin typed the instructions on the shirt he wore. In Shanghai, Malin met Chen Duxiu and gave him his shirt.
Chen Duxiu had to obey the decision of the Communist International because at the second meeting of the Communist Party, held from July 16–23, 1922, at 625 South Chengdu Road in Shanghai, they had decided to join the Communist International. Chen Duxiu and Zhang Guotao attended the meeting with ten other representatives. Then the Communist Party of China got financial aid from the Communist International.
On the 29th and 30th of August, 1922, the Communist Party of China (CPC) held a central meeting on the West Lake in Hangzhou City and decided to found the First United Front, an alliance between the National Party and the Communist Party.
返回顶端
阅读会员资料 海外逸士离线  发送站内短信 QQ号码none 雅虎讯息通 MSN
海外逸士

会员等级:7




加入时间: 2005/11/08
文章: 1674
来自: America
积分: 9343


文章时间: 2019-9-16 周一, 下午7:51    标题: 引用回复

In June 1923, the Communist Party had its third meeting in Canton, and 40 representatives, representing 420 party members, discussed the issue of the First United Front. They elected Chen Duxiu, Li Dazhao (1889–1927), Mao Zedong, and Xiang Ying (1898–1941, who later became commander of the New 4th Army in the Sino–Japanese War), and five others, as members of the Central Committee.
It was said that after the meeting, at the urging of the Communist Party, Sun Yat-sen proposed his three great policies: Alliance with Russia, Co-operation with the Communist Party, and Assistance to Peasants and Workers. But as a matter of fact, Sun never identified with such policies. This was just invented by Mikhail Markovich Borodin, a Russian counselor to the Communist Party of China, to make them look good. Then the Communist Party used this invention as a fact for its own purposes.
Why did Sun agree to the United Front notion? It was because Sun always held to his ideal of Three Principles for the People: the Principle of Nationalism, the Principle of Democracy, and the Principle of People’s Livelihood. Ironically, this party, which was also called Kuomintang by the pronunciations of the Chinese characters “National Party,” evolved into a highly centralized, hierarchical, and authoritarian party. Sun thought that the ideal of communism was closest to his three principles and so he wanted to unite with the Communist Party against their common enemies—warlords who were still taking advantage of the power void left when the imperial order crumbled.
From the 20th to the 30th of January, 1924, the 196 representatives of the National Party held their first conference in Canton (now Guangzhou). Sun was the chairman and the Russian counselor Borodin was in attendance. Some Communist Party members were elected into the executive committee of the National Party. Li Dazhao and a few others were members and Mao Zedong, Zhang Guotao were alternate members.
返回顶端
阅读会员资料 海外逸士离线  发送站内短信 QQ号码none 雅虎讯息通 MSN
海外逸士

会员等级:7




加入时间: 2005/11/08
文章: 1674
来自: America
积分: 9343


文章时间: 2019-9-18 周三, 下午8:39    标题: 引用回复

In the autumn of 1924, General Feng Yuxiang (1882–1948) launched a coup d’état and took control of the Peking government. He invited Sun Yat-sen to Peking to discuss national affairs. In the morning of November 5, Feng sent his troops to surround the Forbidden City and ordered the abdicated emperor to move out. So Henry gathered his precious belongings and moved to Tianjin City with his family. A few faithful old courtiers followed him there.
On November 13, 1924, Sun Yat-sen started from Canton and arrived in Peking on the 31st of December. It was soon found that he was suffering from liver cancer and he died on March 12, 1925. Sun had been in Peking three times. First, in 1894, he went to Peking with the intention of advising the Qing officials on how it might reform the government. But when he saw how serious the corruption was, he realized that no reform could be enough to save China. So he decided to make a revolution. His second visit was in 1912 when the Republic of China was founded. He went to Peking to advise Yuan Shikai that if Yuan could carry on the revolution, he would resign from the temporary presidency. This was his third time.
On the 15th of September, Zhang Zuolin came with his forces from the northeastern provinces towards Peking and allied with Feng Yuxiang. Then a battle broke out between Zhang, Feng and Wu Peifu. Wu’s army was put to rout and Wu escaped south to Hunan and Hubei provinces. Thereafter, Peking fell under the control of Zhang Zuolin, who was always backed by Japan.
返回顶端
阅读会员资料 海外逸士离线  发送站内短信 QQ号码none 雅虎讯息通 MSN
显示文章:     
发表新主题   回复主题    Aust Winner 澳洲长风论坛总目录 -> Multi Languages Section 双语作品、西方文学 所有的时间均为 北京时间
分页 1, 2  下一页
1页,共2
 
论坛转跳:   
不能在本论坛发表新主题
不能在本论坛回复主题
不能在本论坛编辑自己的文章
不能在本论坛删除自己的文章
不能在本论坛发表投票


Powered by phpBB © 2001, 2005 phpBB Group
澳洲长风(www.australianwinner.com)信息部提供论坛管理及技术支持