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[原创] Two Republics in China
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Aust Winner 澳洲长风论坛总目录 -> Multi Languages Section 双语作品、西方文学
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文章时间: 2019-12-16 周一, 下午10:14    标题: 引用回复

Building the Communist Ranks in YanAn

Gathering students

After the XiAn event at the end of 1936, the Central Committee of the Communist Party moved in January of 1937 to YanAn, a small backward town in the north of Shaanxi province. At that time, Chiang Kai-shek would not come to fight them anymore as they had an agreement. Therefore, the Communist Party was ready to gather lots of people with intelligence and talent, no matter young or middle aged. Their party members in big cities, where the most intelligent and talented people generally lived, adopted every possible means to allure such people, especially young students, to YanAn to serve the Communist Party. Young people were easier to entice than middle-aged ones. So many young people went to YanAn, thinking that they could be trained to fight the Japanese invaders. Most young people went there in 1937, 1938, and 1939. Later many of those who became communist cadres were those who had gone there in 1938. So ’38 cadres became a special name for those.
The Communist Party founded a so-called Anti-Japanese military and political university and some schools to mentally train the students to become communist cadres. Yue Shan, a student in Duize high school in Changsha city, recalled that one day in 1938, Xu Deli, a Communist Party member and a representative of Changsha bureau of the 8th Route Army, came to give a speech about the Japanese invasion and called on young people to go to YanAn. His speech was so touching that Yue Shan and some other students enrolled on the spot.
Duan Xuesheng, a Communist Party member and a writer, worked in Shandong province as a teacher, and propagandized to students about communism and instigated them to go to YanAn to take part in the revolution. In Suiyang province and inner Mongolian district, more than 100 young people were attracted to YanAn. In Peking, from May to August in 1938, 107 young people decided to go.
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文章时间: 2019-12-18 周三, 下午10:11    标题: 引用回复

The Central Committee of the Communist Party set up 8th Route Army bureaus in many towns and cities to enroll young people, especially students, to go to YanAn. Statistics showed that the bureau in Lanzhou of Gansu province sent 3,000 in the autumn of 1937. The bureau in Wuhan sent 880 from March to May in 1938. Chongqing sent 2,000. However, those who were permitted to go to YanAn had to have three interviews. Everyone had to produce a letter of recommendation from an organization established by the Communist Party in the place he or she lived. The last interview was held by the organization department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party.
The tide of young people flowing to YanAn caused concern in the National Party. Chiang Kai-shek ordered these young people to be detained. In Yanyang, 103 students were detained by the military police of the national government. After more than ten days, 40 students were carried away in a truck and others were still in custody. In November 1939, labor camps were set up to confine all the students on the way to YanAn. They were assailed with counter-propaganda and “mentally trained” until they expressed their loyalty to the national government, and then they were freed. By the end of 1940, 1,167 students had been detained in the labor camps. From 1939 to 1943, 2,100 students were taken into custody on their way to YanAn.
By the end of 1943, there were 40,000 young newcomers in YanAn, and half of them were female. Many of the females married high-ranking cadres of the Communist Party. Those of the cadres who had already married village girls deserted their wives when they entered big cities like Beijing after 1949, and simply married young city girls.
A special case must be mentioned. Wen Lianchen, alias Xia Sha, a girl of 14 at the time, was the daughter of a town mayor. When the family was in Wuhan, she stole out of the house and wanted to go to YanAn, but was stopped in a train and taken home by a friend of her father’s at Zhengzhou. When the family moved to Chongqing, she insisted on going to YanAn. Her father could do nothing but let her go. He bought a plane ticket for her to XiAn. She found the 8th Route Army bureau there and was safely sent to YanAn. This was the only case when someone went to YanAn by plane.
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文章时间: 2019-12-20 周五, 下午9:48    标题: 引用回复

Jiang Qing—Mao Zedong’s 4th wife —in YanAn

Jiang Qing (1914–1991) was born in Zhu Town of Shandong province. Her original name was Li Yunhe. Her father Li Dewen ran a carpentry shop. Her mother was his concubine, who had been a maidservant. In the summer of 1921, Li Yunhe was in primary school, but in 1926, she was expelled. Her father died of some disease in the same year and her mother took her to live with her brother-in-law in Tianjin City; he was an officer in the army of the warlord Zhang Zuolin. Li Yunhe had worked for three months as a child laborer in the factory of the British–American Tobacco Co., Ltd. In 1928, the brother-in-law moved his troops somewhere else, and her mother took her to live with her cousin in JiNan. In spring of 1929, when she was 15 years old, she learned to be an actress in a theater in the city. In May of 1931, she married a man from a wealthy family, but got divorced in July. Then she went to Qingdao, and from July of 1931 to April of 1933, she worked in a library there. But in February of 1932, at the age 18, she was living with (not married to) Yu Qiwei, three years older than she, a university student majoring in biography, who was also the leader of the propaganda department of the Communist Party there. He had contact with those in the circles of so-called communist culture.
Li Yunhe had acted in a one-scene play named Put Down Your Whip, which could be performed in the street as a protest against the Japanese aggression. In February of 1933, she took an oath and joined the Communist Party through Yu Qiwei in a warehouse in Qingdao. In April, Yu was arrested and she ran away to Shanghai. In May, she attended “The Great China University” by auditing classes. In July she worked as a music teacher in a primary school in the western suburb of Shanghai and acted in some amateur plays after work. In September of 1934, she was arrested, but in February 1935, she was released and went to Peking to live with Yu Qiwei again, who had been released, too.
But in March, she returned to Shanghai to join the Diantong Film Company, using her stage name Lanping. She acted the heroine in the play Nara, and got good reviews. Afterwards, she played roles in two movies. In September, she was living with Tanner, a ★违反论坛条例!★ reviewer. In April of 1936, she was married to him. The ceremony was held together with two other couples, before Liuhe Pagoda in Hangzhou, in the moonlight. A romantic ritual.
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文章时间: 2019-12-22 周日, 下午9:47    标题: 引用回复

However, she still kept in touch with Yu Qiwei and by July Tanner could not bear it; he failed in an attempted suicide. She went back to Shanghai and joined the Lianhua Film Company. She had a role in the film Blood on Wolf Mountain. In February of 1937, she acted in the drama Thunderstorm. On the 30th of May, Tanner attempted suicide again, but still to no avail. Afterwards he went to France and lived there forever.
In September of 1937, as the Anti-Japanese War broke out, Li Yunhe left Shanghai and in August, she arrived in YanAn and changed her name to Jiang Qing. In November, she was enrolled in the Anti-Japanese Military and Political University. On the 10th of April, 1938, the Lu Xun Arts College was founded and she was appointed instructor of the drama department. She acted in two dramas, and in August acted in a Peking opera. Her efforts were appreciated and soon afterwards, she was promoted to secretary in the office of the military committee, close to Mao. It was said that she often went to see Mao and asked for instructions from him. The intimacy changed their relationship and soon she was living with Mao in place of his current wife He Zizhen, who was studying in Moscow at the time. In 1939, Mao married her. But at the time, she had not been divorced from Tanner yet and Mao had not been divorced from He Zizhen. Both committed bigamy.
Quite a few Communist Party leaders opposed the marriage, Zhang Wentian first and foremost. He maintained that He Zizhen was a good comrade and must be respected as a legal wife. Besides, she had been wounded in the Long March and could not be ignored like this. Wang Shiying had been in Shanghai and knew all about Jiang Qing’s love affairs, which were really scandals. And as the leader of the Communist Party, Mao should not marry a woman with such a background. So he wrote a letter outlining these scandals. He asked Nan Hanchen to sign the letter, too, who also worked in Shanghai and knew about it all. (Both were later persecuted to death by Jiang Qing in the Cultural Revolution.) Only Kang Sheng (1898–1975) supported their marriage.
Then the Communist Party had a meeting and put up three conditions: 1) Jiang Qing should not interfere in political affairs; 2) Jiang Qing could not take up any office, inside or outside the Communist Party; 3) Jiang Qing’s main task was to look after Mao in his health and personal life.
Jiang Qing had a daughter with Mao, born in 1940 and called Li Na, who is still alive now, in retirement.
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文章时间: 2019-12-23 周一, 下午10:56    标题: 引用回复

Mao’s marriage history and his other women

Mao had four formal marriages. His first wife was Ms. Luo (no given name known), whom Mao married in accordance with arrangements made by his parents. She was then 20 years old while Mao was only 16. The Mao family and Luo family were relatives. Though she was a pleasant woman, Mao did not like her. They married in 1907. But in February of 1910, she died of some disease. Using this as a pretext, Mao left his family and went to Peking.
His second wife was Yang Kaihui (1901–1930), whose father, Yang Changji, was a graduate returned from England who became a professor of ethics at Peking University. At that time Mao worked in the library and studied as a guest student. He and Yang Kaihui were classmates. In 1919, Mao began to court Yang Kaihui, and in 1920, they lived together without legally marrying. At that time Mao was 26 years old and Yang was only 18. She bore three sons for Mao. In 1921, Yang joined the Communist Party, but afterwards she was arrested by the national government and was executed on the 14th of November, 1930. Her first son, Mao Anying (1922–1950), died in the Korean War. Her second son, Mao Anqing (1923–2007), was escorted by Kang Sheng to Moscow. He joined the Communist Party in 1947. In July of 1949, he was given the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, but he was engaged in research work in the Academy of Military Sciences, not combat. He died of heart disease. Yang’s third son, Mao Anlong, was a riddle. It was said that he went missing as a child and no one knew what became of him even now. And no one ever appeared claiming that he was Mao’s third son.
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文章时间: 2019-12-25 周三, 下午9:53    标题: 引用回复

Mao’s third wife was He Zizhen (1910–1984), sister of marshal He Long. In 1927 when Mao went to Jinggang Mountain after the riot, he met He Zizhen there. That year, Mao was 35 years old while she was only 17. In June of 1928, they got married while his second wife Yang Kaihui was in prison. It has never been said that Mao had endeavored to rescue her from the prison. When He Zizhen grew up, she became the secretary of the frontier committee of the Red Army and director of the women’s league in the southwestern Jiangxi province. In the Long March, while protecting the wounded soldiers from air raids, she was wounded herself. In January of 1938, she went to study in Moscow and returned to China in the summer of 1947. Then she took up offices like director of the women’s league in Hangzhou City. He Zizhen had her first child with Mao in 1929, and when they had to escape, He Zizhen left her daughter with a local family. The child was called Mao Jinhua. In April, 1932, when He Zizhen wanted to find the child, she was told that the child had died. In fact, the child did not die. At that time some agents of the National Party had come to inquire about the child and so the adoptive family lied, saying the child had died, lest they kill it. The child grew up and was named Yang Yuehua. In 1973, an old Red Army man came to the place and learned something about Yang Yuehua and he notified He Zizhen’s brother, who informed his sister of the truth. However, it was during the Cultural Revolution when Jiang Qing was in power, so the mother and the daughter could not see each other. The daughter is alive now in retirement. He Zizhen had another daughter called Mao Jiaojiao. But afterwards when Mao Zedong changed his name to Li Desheng to avoid being arrested by the national government, this daughter changed her name to Li Min, which is used now. He Zizhen died in Shanghai at the age 75.
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文章时间: 2019-12-27 周五, 下午10:05    标题: 引用回复

His fourth wife was Jiang Qing (see above). But he had many other women outside of marriage. The first one we know about was Tao Siyong, from a rich family. She was known as a woman of talent and a beauty, too. From 1919 to 1920, she and Mao opened a bookstore in Changsha. Mao wrote many love letters to her. Five of them were found later. In 1921, she went to study in Jinling College in Nanking. As her father did not like Mao, she did not marry him. She died in 1931 at the age of 36 without marrying anyone. The next one was Ding Ling, a so-called red writer. She was born on the 12th of October, 1904. She was a classmate of Yang Kaihui in high school. She joined the Communist Party in 1932 and was arrested too, but in September of 1936, with the assistance of the Communist Party, escaped from prison in Nanking and went to YanAn. Mao loved her at first sight. She was the chief editor of Journal of Literature and Arts, and then the party secretary of the Chinese Writers Association, and the chief editor of People’s Literature, etc. But in the anti-rightist movement in 1957, she was declared a rightist and was exiled to a cold region in northeastern China. She died on March 4, 1986.
Another was Wu Lili, born in 1912. She went to America for further studies after graduation from the Normal University in Peking. When she learned of the outbreak of the Anti-Japanese War, she came back to China, to YanAn, to fight Japan. She became Mao’s interpreter and they fell in love. But when He Zizhen heard about this, she went there and caught them together. She wanted to kill them both. This became such a big scandal that the Central Committee of the Communist Party had to intervene. Wu Lili was sent away. Afterwards, she married an officer of the National Party and went to live in Taiwan.
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文章时间: 2019-12-29 周日, 下午10:16    标题: 引用回复

Sun Weishi was also one, whose father was a fellow fighter of Premier Zhou. When he died in 1927, Sun Weishi was only 5. So Premier Zhou took care of her and looked upon her as his adopted daughter, but openly known as his niece. Then she went with Zhou Enlai to YanAn. She was called the red princess. In 1939, she went with Zhou Enlai to Moscow to study drama. In December 1949, Mao went to the Soviet Union with Zhou; Sun Weishi was their interpreter and also taught Mao some Russian. Mao had a carriage of his own in the train. One night Mao raped her in his carriage. Sun told Zhou about it, but Zhou did not dare to say anything. In the Cultural Revolution, her brother was tragically beaten to death and Sun wrote to Jiang Qing to ask for an investigation. She also wrote to Zhou. Both without result. In December 1967, her husband was put in prison on spying charges. Her home was searched and some letters to Mao were found. Jiang Qing took these letters to see Zhou Enlai and blamed him for it. Jiang even slapped Zhou’s face in wrath. Zhou could not do anything to her. Before long Sun Weishi was put in a secret prison on the orders of Jiang Qing and was tortured to death. A long nail was driven into her head. Jiang Qing wanted Zhou Enlai to sign an order to execute Sun Weishi; Zhou did not dare to refuse and signed it. No comment needed here. Everyone can see what a man Zhou was.
Feng Fengming was a returned overseas Chinese and was talented in drama. When she arrived in YanAn, she was enrolled in the Lu Xun Arts College and then became an actress. One day after a performance, Mao invited her to his place to discuss acting. Then and there, he violated her. She was so infuriated that she left YanAn. No one knew where she went.
In 1962, Mao went to Shanghai. The mayor Ke Qingshi at the time made arrangements for Mao to meet the famous ★违反论坛条例!★ star Shangguan Yunzhu. A friend of hers had witnessed a note Mao had written to Shangguan. Mao wrote that “A hero loved a beauty since the olden days. I am the hero. You are the beauty.” The next year, Mao came to Shanghai again and met her again. Every time, they would stay together for several days. In 1965, she was brought to Zhongnanhai (literally, central south sea) in Beijing, where Mao lived. They openly lived together. Not long later, Mao took her back to Shanghai and she never saw him again. In 1966, she was arrested under orders of Jiang Qing and she died in jail.
In Mao’s late years, Zhang Yufeng worked as Mao’s secretary and looked after him day and night. Zhang was born in 1944 to a poor family in northeastern China. In 1958, Zhang worked as a train attendant. Then she was transferred to the special train for Mao in 1962. In 1967, she was married to a man working in the railway department. But in July 1970, Mao took a liking to her and she was sent to work in Zhongnanhai. She looked after Mao’s health and daily life. She lived with Mao till his death. Then she moved out of Zhongnanhai. Now she’s enjoying a quiet retired life.
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文章时间: 2019-12-30 周一, 下午10:07    标题: 引用回复

The Puppet Governments in China Under Japan

The assassination of Wang Jingwei

Japan knew that for such a big country as China, they would need to set up some puppet governments as they could not rule all China by themselves. Manchukuo in the northeastern China was the first puppet government Japan established. As Japan expanded into other provinces, they founded other local puppet governments. From December 1937 to March 1938, puppet governments were set up in Peking and in Nanking.
Japan always wanted to induce Chiang Kai-shek and the national government to surrender to Japan and became the central puppet government, but never succeeded. In November, 1938, Japan sent someone to talk to Wang Jingwei (1883—1944) and his clique. His two important followers were Chen Gongbo (1892—1946) and Zhou Fohai (1897—1948). Both were originally members of the Communist Party. It was said that most of the members of any party were mainly opportunists. They would go where personal benefits beckoned to them.
Wang always wanted to be the head of a government, but he was no rival to Chiang Kai-shek who controlled the army. Now Japan offered him a chance to be one, though only the head of a puppet government. Better than nothing. So the representatives of both sides had a secret talk in Shanghai and signed an agreement stating that the new government recognized Manchukuo, and that Japan had priority over any natural resources in China, etc. On the 18th of December, 1938, Wang Jingwei, Chen Gongbo and Zhou Fohai stealthily left Chongqing, the temporary war-time capital, and went to Kunming, where they took a plane to Hanoi in Vietnam.
On December 29, 1938, Wang sent out a public telegram stating three points as his principles for negotiating with Japan: firstly, be friendly to the adjacent countries; secondly, to cooperate with Japan against the Communist Party; thirdly, to get financial assistance from Japan. The national government and the Communist Party both saw Wang’s statement as a betrayal of China and a capitulation to Japan. So Wang and his followers were defined as traitors.
Therefore, on New Year’s Day of 1939, Chiang Kai-shek had a meeting to announce that Wang was expelled from the National Party and dismiss from all his offices. Next he planned to get rid of Wang physically. Some special agents were sent to assassinate him in Hanoi.
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文章时间: 2020-1-01 周三, 下午9:55    标题: 引用回复

Wang and his wife, Chen Bijun, and another follower, hid in a house and seldom went out. The special agents were composed of 18 experienced assassins, called “18 Arhans,” which came from the Buddhist culture, but meant “strong men” in Chinese culture. They arrived in Hanoi and got all the information they needed about Wang, and where he lived. They were waiting for the final order from Chiang Kai-shek. Chiang still harbored a hope that Wang would turn back to the national government. He sent an emissary to Hanoi to have a talk with Wang, but Wang refused the request to go back. Wang and his wife knew that they were now in danger of being killed.
On the 19th of March, Chiang Kai-shek gave the final order to rid of Wang. So the 18 Arhans got ready for action. At 9 o’clock on the 20th day, when the agents had a meeting to arrange for the action, they heard that Wang and his men were getting ready to leave the house. So the agents came to chase them, riding in two cars. When Wang and his men found that they were being followed, they succeeded in shaking the agents off in the heavy traffic at an intersection.
At 4 o’clock the next day, Wang’s new location was disclosed. So six agents went there. They had to act fast because they were in a foreign country. Vietnam at that time was under French rule. Wang’s guards could not carry guns. But the agents secretly had guns carried in. So when the agents attacked, the guards were defenseless. One agent went to the room where Want was supposed to be. The agent used an ax to make a hole in the door and saw a man and a woman inside. He shot at the man three times. He witnessed the bullets hit home and left as fast as he could. Three of the agents escaped and three of them were arrested by the police in Hanoi. Afterwards, while they were happy thinking that they had finished off Wang, information arrived that Wang was still alive. Only one of his followers was killed. Some of the agents left and some remained behind for further action. But they never killed Wang.
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文章时间: 2020-1-03 周五, 下午10:05    标题: 引用回复

The establishment of the puppet government in Nanking

On March 27, Wang published an article revealing the minutes of a national government meeting where the conditions of peace proposed by Japan were discussed. And Chiang Kai-shek basically agreed to the conditions. Wang wanted to show to Chinese people and the world that Chiang Kai-shek was the first to negotiate with Japan, not he. But he did not know the difference there. Chiang Kai-shek only wanted to negotiate with Japan for a truce while Wang himself was ready to surrender to Japan.
On March 22, the Japanese general consulate reported to the Japanese government about the assassination attempt on Wang. On March 25, Wang and his men went on board a French ship under the protection of Japan and then were transferred to a Japanese ship. He arrived in Shanghai on the 6th of May. Then Wang went to Tokyo to have a talk with the prime minister about the establishment of a central puppet government in China. On the 30th of March, 1940, the puppet government was founded in Nanking, with Wang at its head.
Japan called it the Nanking national government, but Chiang Kai-shek refused to recognize it. But Germany, Italy, Hungary, Romania, Denmark, Spain, Croatia, Slovakia, and Bulgaria recognized it. The puppet government imitated the national government in organization and had its own puppet army, which was thus called by people. But the puppet army took orders from the Japanese army, not directly from the Wang and his men. The puppet government did everything under the supervision and command of Japan, just like the Manchurian puppet emperor in northeastern China.
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文章时间: 2020-1-05 周日, 下午10:04    标题: 引用回复

In March of 1944, Wang was very ill and went to Japan for treatment. On the 10th of November, he died in the hospital there. Then Chen Gongbo, one of the founders of the CPC, became the head of the puppet government. When Japan surrendered in 1945, Chen Gongbo and his wife flew to Japan but were extradited to China on October 3. He and Chen Bijun, the wife of Wang, were put in prison in February of 1946 in Suzhou. On the 4th of June, Chen Gongbo was executed. Chen Bijun was sentenced to life and died in prison on the 17th of June, 1959. She pleaded for herself, saying that she had wanted to save the nation in an indirect way. “Trying to save the nation in an indirect way” was a common term of ridicule thereafter.
As for Zhou Fohai, another founding member of the CPC, when he sensed that Japan would soon perish, he secretly made contact with Chiang Kai-shek and the Nationalists. After the victory, Chiang Kai-shek appointed him as commander-in-chief to maintain law and order in Nanking and Shanghai till the national government army came. But on the September 30, 1945, he was apprehended and sent to Chongqing, then brought back to Nanking. On October 21, his case was tried in court, and on November 7, he was sentenced to death. But in March of 1947, Chiang Kai-shek issued an order of amnesty for him, and the sentence was commuted to life imprisonment. He died of heart disease in the jail on February 28, 1948.
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文章时间: 2020-1-06 周一, 下午9:41    标题: 引用回复

The rectification campaign of the Communist Party in YanAn

Besides the 8th Route Army, the new 4th army was also under the control of the Communist Party. The new 4th army had their position in the southern Anhui province. So the Communist Party had two armies of their own, one in the northwest and the other in the southeast. Mao always hated Chiang Kai-shek and had once planned to attack Chiang Kai-shek from behind with 150,000 men. But the plan was aborted when the Communist International objected to it. In 1941, an incident flared up between the new 4th army and the 32nd military bloc of the national government.
On the night January 4, 1941, 9,000 of the new 4th army under the command of Xiang Yin maneuvered from the southern Anhui province to the north side of the Yangtze River through the southern Jiangsu province, without notifying the national government. The National 32nd bloc thought that the new 4th army was trying to attack their 40th division, and on January 6, they surrounded it and assailed it. Several times, Xiang Yin telegrammed YanAn, but Mao never answered or gave any instruction what to do. On January 10, the new 4th army telegrammed Mao again. On January 12, Mao asked Zhou Enlai to protest to the national government and request the withdrawal of their army. So the next day, Zhou protested to the national government. The fight had already been going on for seven days. Of the 9,000 soldiers in the new 4th army, only 2,000 escaped.
After the incident, Mao decided that the Communist Party of China should not follow the guidance of the Communist International any more. They should make decisions on their own. Therefore, the Communist Party launched a rectification campaign, which is considered to have begun in May 1941 when Mao made a speech, “Reform Our Studies.” In June, the propaganda department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party issued a document, “Instruction concerning how to wage the campaign of studies and rectification within the whole party.” But the campaign actually started in February, 1942, when Mao made another speech, “Rectify Our Style of Work,” and it ended when a bill was passed in a session of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, “The resolution of some historical problems,” in April 1945.
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文章时间: 2020-1-08 周三, 下午9:45    标题: 引用回复

However, what really happened in the rectification campaign was that everyone had to make some kind of confession about their inner thoughts to show loyalty to the party. Many people who had come to YanAn from the regions under the national government were suspected of being spies of the National Party. Many of those were forced to confess that they were indeed spies sent by the National Party. If they wanted to be punished less severely, they had to expose others who were also spies. Mao hinted that to achieve this purpose, some harsh measures would be necessary. The most common method was not to let the one being cross-examined get any sleep. It was called fatigue-torture. In American it’s called sleep deprivation. Another method was to let those suspects watch someone being shot; just a little psychological pressure.
In April 1943 alone, several thousand people were put under custody. Some were locked up in caves. Some were just confined to their work places—“equivalent prisons,” they called them. There were not enough jailers to watch over the prisoners, so their colleagues assumed the task. This was a clever invention of Mao. To show their loyalty to the party, the colleagues had to do their duties faithfully and keep watch over the prisoners. No one could escape their vigilance. About a thousand people died. Some committed suicide. To them this was not a political movement, but terrorism. Many people who had come to YanAn in hopes of fighting Japan died at the hands of their own comrades.
On August 15, 1943, Mao said that in such campaigns, some errors were unavoidable (like a bit of torture). The errors should not be corrected too early, or there would be no targets and that would hinder the development of the campaign. If the errors were corrected too late, people would be very upset and it would cause too much loss. So the principle was to watch the campaign closely, calculating accurately, and stop it at the right time.
As it became more apparent that Japan was likely to lose the war, Mao liberated those prisoners who luckily had survived and who, in Mao’s calculation, could be sent to fight Chiang Kai-shek after the victory. To assuage their enmity, Mao apologized several times, saying that the aim of the rectification campaign was to let them have a political bath to wash off the dust they carried from the regions under Chiang’s government, but too much potassium permanganate (which can cause caustic burns) was used, which had hurt the tender skin of the new comers. He added that if a son was beaten by the father, he should not hate his father.
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文章时间: 2020-1-10 周五, 下午9:51    标题: 引用回复

Chapter 4. The Second Civil War Between The National Party and the Communist Party

Conflicts Between The Two Parties to Take Over Areas Occupied By Japan

After Japan surrendered, there arose a problem as to who would take over the areas that had been occupied by the Japanese army. The National Party thought that they were the legal government and had the right to these areas. Afraid that the Communist Party would take those areas when the Japanese army withdrew, the national government ordered the Japanese army to remain in the areas they occupied till the army of the national government came to take them. However, the Communist Party declared that they had the right to these areas. So regardless of any orders from the national government, they marched to some of the areas controlled by Japan and took over by force.
Now, most of the national government army was in the southwestern provinces and part of it was stationed to south of the Yangtze River. Almost no national Army forces were in the areas north of the Yangtze river. And the army of the Communist Party spread widely in the countryside north of the River and in the northeastern provinces. But when the Communist Army commanded the Japanese army to surrender to them, the Japanese army refused as they had received orders not to surrender to the Communist Army. Therefore, the Communist Army had to fight the Japanese army and the puppet army to occupy towns possessed by the Japanese army.
Even before Japan surrendered, the national government and the Soviet Union signed a treaty stipulating that the national government recognized the independence of Outer Mongolia (as the Chinese called it), and the special rights of the Soviet Union in northeastern China, in exchange for the Soviet Union’s promise not to support the Communist Army in occupying the northeastern provinces. From then on, Outer Mongolia became the Mongolian Republic and Inner Mongolia still belonged to China.
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文章时间: 2020-1-12 周日, 下午10:14    标题: 引用回复

From August 14–23, Chiang Kai-shek telegrammed Mao three times to invite him to Chongqing to talk about the future of China. On August 25, the Communist Party issued a declaration that the national government must recognize the government in YanAn (denoting the local red government of the Communist Party) and its army in the so-called liberated areas as lawful, and that all the parties were legal and would have to organize a joint government. On August 26, the Communist Party decided that Mao should go to Chongqing to negotiate. But the talks did not produce an agreement, especially about who would take over all the areas occupied by the Japanese army. So while the talks were going on, the fighting was going at the same time. For the Communist Party, when they attacked the Japanese army and the puppet army to take over towns in their possession, they had to fight the National Army as well, as both wanted to take the same town.
By August 26, the Communist Army took 59 towns from the hands of the Japanese. Then under orders from the national government, the Japanese army and the puppet army attacked the Communist Army and restored more than 20 towns by the end of September. The Communist Army changed their original plan; they gave up the eastern part of the Ping-Han railway line and concentrated on the northern provinces. So many of the Communist Army set out for the north and by the end of November, more than 100,000 communist soldiers reached northeastern China, the farthest place, where the National Army could not arrive ahead of them.
On the 10th of September, the Communist Army attacked several towns under control of the national government in Shanxi province and took most of them within ten days. Then they surrounded Tunliu. The national defensive army in Changzhi sent 6,000 soldiers to Tunliu, but they were blocked on the way by a communist detachment. This strategy was often used by the Communist Army to surround some place and lay an ambush along the likely approach route by which reinforcements would come. So the National Army from Changzhi could not go to Tunliu and had to return to Changzhi. On September 12, the Communist Army took Tunliu and came to surround Changzhi. On the 2nd of October, a national reinforcements went to Chingzhi, and as usual, encountered a communist detachment who came out of ambush and surrounded them. As the communist detachment met with strong resistance, they adopted another stratagem. They surrounded the national reinforcements from three sides, leaving one side open for them to escape, and laid another ambush down that way. The reinforcements did escape, only to fall into the second ambush, and was wiped out on the 5th of October. This ruse was often used in Chinese war history. It was not invented by the Communist Party.
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文章时间: 2020-1-13 周一, 下午9:56    标题: 引用回复

On the 10th of October, after lengthy peace talks, the National Party and the Communist Party at last signed an agreement, called the 10/10 agreement, which contained the articles to form a joint government, to nationalize the armies of both sides, and to implement democracy and constitutionalism.
Although the peace agreement was signed, the Communist Party still planned to stop the National Army from going to the northern areas to accept the surrender of the Japanese army there. They looked upon the northern areas as belonging to them, and considered the National Army to be trespassing if they went there.
On the 20th of October, when the National Army arrived at Zhuang River, on the way to Handan, and on October 22 crossed the river, the Communist Army was waiting for them. On October 24, the National Army broke through the blockade and reached Matou Town in a narrow valley where they were encircled by the Communist Army. On October 28, more Communist Army troops came and they began the attack. At the same time the Communist Party sent an envoy to see the commander of the new 8th army of the national government and persuaded him to betray the national government. On October 30, the new 8th army declared their insurrection. On October 31, the main national forces broke the encirclement of the Communist Army and escaped south. From October of 1945 to January of 1946, the Communist Army occupied Jinpu railway line, Longhai railway line, Jiaoji railway line, and all the towns along the three lines. These areas had strategic importance and were threats to the safety of Nanking and Shanghai.
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文章时间: 2020-1-15 周三, 下午9:59    标题: 引用回复

America’s mediation between the National Party and the Communist Party

After the outbreak of the Pacific War, beginning with the Japanese raid of the Pearl Harbor, America aided China a lot, in both military action and supplies of goods. Joseph Stilwell, chief of staff of the Allies, came to China. His main job was to guarantee that the supplies needed in the Anti-Japanese War reached the hands of the National Army through the highway from Burma to Yunnan province.
At the request of the Allies, in early 1942, the national government sent its army into Burma, where it would be under the command of Joseph Stilwell to aid the English army. But when the Chinese army reached Burma, the English army there was already defeated by Japan. Then the Japanese army surrounded the Chinese army, which, nevertheless, succeeded afterwards in breaking through the encirclement, and separated into two parts. The first part, under orders from Joseph Stilwell, went to India, and the second part returned to Yunnan province through the virgin forest. The international supplies were mostly used in the Burmese battlefields and only a few reached the national government. Chiang Kai-shek was dissatisfied with this and also with the failure of the Chinese army under the command of Joseph Stilwell in the Burmese war. Therefore, in 1943, Chiang asked twice for Stilwell to be replaced. But Chiang did not succeed because of the opposition of Alfred Marshall in the United States.
After the spring of 1944, the withdrawal of the National Army after the Japanese army attack made President Roosevelt send his vice president Wallace to China to see what was the real situation. Wallace was not impressed with the national government of China. In August, three times, President Roosevelt asked Chiang Kai-shek to give the command of the Chinese army to Stilwell, but Chiang replied that if he had to give up his command of the army to Stilwell, he would rather break off relations with the Allies and fight Japan with Chinese forces alone. At length, after consideration, President Roosevelt gave order to replace Stilwell and appointed Wedemeyer for the task, on the 18th of October, 1944.
Meantime, with the quick development of the communist forces, an American delegation headed by Colonel Barrett went to YanAn, in July of 1944, followed on the 7th of November, 1944, by Patrick Jay Hurley, American ambassador in China, who went to YanAn to talk about the legal status of the Communist Party. They reached an agreement to end the dictatorship and one-party rule, to include all the parties in the Anti-Japanese War in the joint national government, to recognize the legal status of all the parties, and to distribute all the supplies among them.
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文章时间: 2020-1-17 周五, 下午10:21    标题: 引用回复

Patrick Jay Hurley came back to Chongqing and had a conversation with Chiang Kai-shek, who had three conditions: 1) the national government recognized the lawful status of the Communist Party and would reorganize its army; 2) the Communist Party must give the command of its army to the military committee of the national government and the national government would appoint some generals of the Communist Party as members of the military committee; 3) the aim of the national government was to realize Three Principles of the People. Of course, two conditions were denied by the Communist Party. They could never yield the command of their army to anyone else, and their aim was to install communism. But in face, no one in the Communist Party knew what communism really was. They mainly used it as a slogan to mislead people.
After Japan’s surrender, the Communist Party and the National Party fought each other over the areas occupied by Japan. To appease both sides, Hurley suggested Chiang Kai-shek invite Mao to Chongqing for a talk. Though Mao came, the fight continued. The Communist Party, supported by the Soviet Union, took the initiative to attack the National Army. On November 26th, 1945, Hurley handed in his resignation to President Truman. Fearful of a civil war in China, President Truman sent Alfred Marshall there, who arrived in Shanghai on the 20th of December, 1945.
Alfred Marshall talked to both sides and then formed a trio group. Besides Alfred Marshall, Zhang Jun represented the National Party and Zhou Enlai the Communist Party. On the 10th of January, 1946, they reached an agreement for truce, effective at zero hour on the 13th of January. Both sides issued orders for a ceasefire.
On the 5th of January, Chiang Kai-shek made a suggestion to Alfred Marshall about how to reorganize the army of both sides. On January 23, a trio group discussed it. Alfred Marshall suggested that after the reorganization, there would be only 60 divisions, 20 of them under the communist command. As to the navy and air forces, the Communist Party would have 30% of each. Chiang did not consent to that, but made some concessions. However, on 25th, the trio signed an agreement. Then they flew to Peking and YanAn to oversee the preparations.
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文章时间: 2020-1-19 周日, 下午9:46    标题: 引用回复

On the 11th of March, Marshall went back to the States. The two parties went back to war. When Marshall came to China again on April 18, the situation was serious. Chiang Kai-shek told Marshall that the Communist Party would not abide by the agreement and was continuing its attack on Changchun City. Chiang added that the National Army might withdraw from the northeastern provinces and leave the problem up to the international parties to decide. Marshall promised to transport the 60th national army and the 93rd national army to those provinces, but he refused to have two more armies transported there. (If two more armies had been transported there, China might have had a different future. Was this a typical case of a gentleman fighting a rogue?)
In late May of 1946, the National Army counterattacked the Communist Army and took Changchun and pursued the Communist Army to the Songhua River, approaching Harbin. Then, under pressure from Marshall, on June 6 Chiang Kai-shek had to give order to the National Army to stop further attacks for 15 days. (Another wrong decision.) During the truce, the military trio had talks concerning the restoration of traffic and a truce throughout the northeastern areas. In July, Marshall found that the military conflicts had become worse. In mid-July, seven American mariners were kidnapped by the Communist Army in the eastern Hebei province and at the end of July, some American transport trucks were ambushed by the Communist Army on the way from Tianjin to Peking. Three mariners were killed and 12 wounded.
At Marshall’s suggestion, on the 11th of July, John Leighton Stuart was appointed ambassador in China to help Marshall with the mediations. As Chiang Kai-shek said that the final goal of the Communist Party was to attain power over all the country, not just a truce with the national government, all these negotiations ended in nothing. On the 15th of November, 1946, the People’s Conference for drawing up the constitution opened and the Communist Party refused to attend. On the contrary, they declared on November 16 that they considered the conference unlawful. On January 8, 1947, Marshall went back to America. The national government was about to send a delegation to YanAn for peace talks, but the Communist Party said that there was no need unless the People’s Conference and the Constitution were declared unlawful.
So the door to peace talks was closed.
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文章时间: 2020-1-20 周一, 下午9:51    标题: 引用回复

The national Government Was Expelled to Taiwan

The second civil war actually began

On the 26th of June, 1946, the day when the effective truce period was over, the National Army started their onslaught to the Communist Army, but they had already escaped. This date is considered by historians as the actual outbreak of the second civil war between the Communist Party and the National Party.
To protect the Nanking wing, from July to December, the National Army attacked the Communist Army in the northern Jiangsu province seven times. The result was that the National Army occupied all the towns in that area, but the Communist Army annihilated the 69th division of the National Army. Who was the winner? The Communist Party. The towns were still there. If they were lost, they could be retaken some time later. But once a division was wiped out, the National Army had lost a division forever. Mao Zedong’s strategy was to make the first aim the annihilation of the national army, not to keep possession of towns. Once the National Army was totally wiped out, who could fight them for the towns? Therefore, from a strategic point of view, Chiang Kai-shek and the National Party were doomed to lose in the long run.
On the 20th of July, the Communist Army began their attack of Datong Town in Shanxi province. In August they surrounded the town, but by September they could not take the town and had to retreat. In October, Marshall was hard at work trying to broker an agreement, but the national government made two last minute demands that again sabotaged his efforts. On October 11, the National Army made a surprise attack and took Zhangjiakou in Hebei province. When Liang Shuming, a mediator belonging to none of the parties, read in the newspapers that Zhangjiakou was taken by the National Army, he sighed, “By the time we woke up, the peace was already over.”
But he was wrong in that. When Mao secretly made up his mind to rule China by himself with his party, peace was already out of the question. Chiang Kai-shek only wanted for his rule and that of the National Party to last a bit longer, hoping to defeat the Communist Party by force. However, he always chose wrong tactics; so his case was already hopeless. Wise stratagems can enable the weak to conquer the strong. If statesmen or generals wish to be wise and victorious, they must learn from history.
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文章时间: 2020-1-22 周三, 下午9:31    标题: 引用回复

On August 10, the Communist Army occupied some hundreds of miles of railway line between Tangshan and Lanfeng. When the National Army counterattacked, the Communist Army withdrew, but they annihilated another division of the National Army during the process in early September. In late October, the National Army took 25 towns and it looked like victory was theirs. But they were wrong. The Communist Party still had their full forces while the National Army was diminishing, division by division. Once they had a town, they had taken on a burden, just like the Japanese army had done. If Chiang Kai-shek had been wise enough, he would have concentrated his army on wiping out the Communist Army bit by bit. Instead he lost the mainland to the Communists. The tragic fate of the common Chinese people was thus sealed.
From December in 1946 to April in 1947, the Communist Army eliminated more than 40,000 of the National troops and took 11 towns in the northeastern provinces. On the 10th of March, 1947, the National Army came to assail YanAn. The Communist Army withdrew from it and adopted their well-known guerrilla strategies. The National Army could not get at them, let alone to extinguish them.
In Shandong province, the Communist Party often boasted of their best strategy used in the campaign in Menglianggu area from late March to early May. The National Army gathered 450,000 men and planned to occupy all the so-called liberated areas from the Communist Party. The National Army strategy was to advance step by step, pushing forward like a wall and leaving no gap for guerrilla movements, which was temporarily successful. But the strategy of the Communist Army was to make a sham retreat to let the enemy think that they were trying to escape, while they would seek for chances to attack a small part of the National Army. Like eating a big cake, bite by bite.
The 74th division of the National Army was thought of as a trump division, but Zhang Lingfu, their commander, was an arrogant and thoughtless man, though brave. He marched ahead, leaving other two divisions far behind. Although this region was controlled by the National Army, there were gaps between their troops. So the Communist Army made a bold plan to wedge between the groups and surround the 74th division. When Chiang Kai-shek learned that his 74th division was in danger, he commanded other divisions close to Zhang to rush to his rescue. The Communist Army knew that reinforcements would be coming from the National Army, as usual, and so they ambushed them at Huangya Mountain and blocked the way to Menglianggu.
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文章时间: 2020-1-24 周五, 下午9:51    标题: 引用回复

This was the decisive battle. Whoever won in this battle would win in the entire campaign in the region. The Communist Army reached the top of the mountain a few minutes earlier, seizing the high ground, and got control of the entire battlefield. Though the national reinforcements did their best to launch attack after attack from the foot of the mountain, geography was not in their favor. Meanwhile, the Communist Army poured fire at the surrounded 74th division. The Communist Army sent a suicide squad to steal in and make a surprise attack on the command center of the 74th division, which was in a cave. When they got to the entrance, only three of them were still alive. They shouted, “The first battalion go east; the second battalion west; the third battalion, block the front exit.” Then they yelled inside, “Hands up!” When Commander Zhang Lingfu came out and saw only three of them, he fired and killed one. But a Communist soldier shot him dead before he could do more. The whole 74th division and a regiment from the 83rd division with them were all eradicated, over 30,000 in all.
On the 31st of July, 1947, the Communist Party officially named their army the Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA, as it is known today), and it was divided into four so-called field armies. They recruited mostly young people in the countryside, who were generally illiterate and easily tricked into sacrificing their lives. So their army swelled in size. They used ten times the troops to attack the National Army and it was said that when one enemy soldier was killed, they could sacrifice ten of theirs.
In the second civil war, there were three major campaigns besides many minor battles.
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文章时间: 2020-1-26 周日, 下午10:33    标题: 引用回复

The campaign in the northeastern provinces

The first campaign was waged from the 12th of September to the 2nd of November, in 1948, in the northeastern provinces. There the situation was favorable to the Communist “Liberation” army, because during the Anti-Japanese War, they had guerrillas in the northeastern China controlling wide swathes of the countryside. When the National Army was transported there to take over what was in the hands of the Japanese army, they only occupied cities such as Shenyang, Changchun and Jinzhou. The Communist Party wanted to take over all the provinces in the northeastern China first, because there were factories that could make weapons for them, and also this area provided grain supplies for their army. Then they would go down south to the coastline.
For this campaign, the 4th field army, under the command of Lin Biao, gathered 700,000 men while the National Army had only 550,000. As a result, the casualties of the Liberation Army, including those wounded, were 609,000 and those of the National Army 470,000.
At the beginning of the campaign, the Communist Liberation Army had already surrounded Changchun. They originally planned that if they could take Changchun, they would get supplies from it. However, the city was built so strong that it was not easy to take. Therefore, they had to surround it lest the National Army in the city came out to interfere with their other schemes. On the 7th of September, Mao telegrammed Lin Biao to attack Jinzhou. If they occupied Jinzhou area, they would block the National Army from escaping south.
On the 24th of September, 1948, the National Army telegrammed Chiang Kai-shek for reinforcements. Chiang commanded Wei Lihuang in Shenyang to send a detachment to rescue the army in Jinzhou, but Wei refused to carry out the order on the excuse that it might jeopardize the safety of Shenyang. Chiang had to transport the 49th army by air to Jinzhou. But only two regiments landed successfully. Then the airport was blocked by Communist anti-aircraft guns on the 28th and the airplanes could not land any more. On October 1, the Communist Liberation Army surrounded Jinzhou after taking over all other towns in its vicinity.
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文章时间: 2020-1-26 周日, 下午10:35    标题: 引用回复

The campaign in the northeastern provinces

The first campaign was waged from the 12th of September to the 2nd of November, in 1948, in the northeastern provinces. There the situation was favorable to the Communist “Liberation” army, because during the Anti-Japanese War, they had guerrillas in the northeastern China controlling wide swathes of the countryside. When the National Army was transported there to take over what was in the hands of the Japanese army, they only occupied cities such as Shenyang, Changchun and Jinzhou. The Communist Party wanted to take over all the provinces in the northeastern China first, because there were factories that could make weapons for them, and also this area provided grain supplies for their army. Then they would go down south to the coastline.
For this campaign, the 4th field army, under the command of Lin Biao, gathered 700,000 men while the National Army had only 550,000. As a result, the casualties of the Liberation Army, including those wounded, were 609,000 and those of the National Army 470,000.
At the beginning of the campaign, the Communist Liberation Army had already surrounded Changchun. They originally planned that if they could take Changchun, they would get supplies from it. However, the city was built so strong that it was not easy to take. Therefore, they had to surround it lest the National Army in the city came out to interfere with their other schemes. On the 7th of September, Mao telegrammed Lin Biao to attack Jinzhou. If they occupied Jinzhou area, they would block the National Army from escaping south.
On the 24th of September, 1948, the National Army telegrammed Chiang Kai-shek for reinforcements. Chiang commanded Wei Lihuang in Shenyang to send a detachment to rescue the army in Jinzhou, but Wei refused to carry out the order on the excuse that it might jeopardize the safety of Shenyang. Chiang had to transport the 49th army by air to Jinzhou. But only two regiments landed successfully. Then the airport was blocked by Communist anti-aircraft guns on the 28th and the airplanes could not land any more. On October 1, the Communist Liberation Army surrounded Jinzhou after taking over all other towns in its vicinity.
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